194 research outputs found

    Gyford\u27s Public Spirit: Dissent in Witham and Essex 1500-1700 - Book Review

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    Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy-Acute Cardiac Dysfunction Associated With Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders

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    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is an acute and reversible cardiac wall motion abnormality of the left myocardium. Although many studies focused on etiology, diagnostic and treatment of TTC, precise clinical guidelines on TTC are not available. Research revealed emotional and physical triggering factors of TTC and emphasized the association of TTC with psychiatric and particularly acute neurological disorders. Similar clinical presentation of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and TTC patients, makes an anamnestic screening for TTC risk factors necessary. In psychiatric anamnesis affective disorders and chronic anxiety disorders are presumably for TTC. Subarachnoid hemorrhages and status epilepticus are typical acute neurological associated with a higher risk for TTC. Moreover, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies reveled brain alterations of the limbic system and reduced connectivity of central autonomic nervous system structures. Diagnosis of TTC is made by elevation of cardiac enzymes, electrocardiogram (ECG) and visualization of myocardial wall motion. Major differential diagnoses like acute coronary syndrome and myocarditis are hereby in synopsis with anamnesis with respect of possible emotional and physical triggering factors of TTC ruled out. In most cases the TTC typical wall motion abnormalities resolve in weeks and therapy is only necessary in hemodynamic instable patients and if rare complications, like cardiac wall ruptures occur. Recently, the two-parted International expert consensus document on Takotsubo syndrome was published, providing a detailed characterization of TTC and allows clinicians to understand this cardiac dysfunction with a multidisciplinary view

    The Journal of the Friends' Historical Society vol. 65 No. 1

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    1. Contents; 2. Editorial; 3. Friends and War 1899-1945; 4. William Forster Senior and the response of Norwich and Norfolk to Famine in Ireland, 1846-1849; 5. Recent Publications; 6. Biographies

    Inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor by erlotinib prevents immortalization of human cervical cells by Human Papillomavirus type 16

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    AbstractThe Human Papillomavirus type-16 (HPV-16) E6 and E7 oncogenes are selectively retained and expressed in cervical carcinomas, and expression of E6 and E7 is sufficient to immortalize human cervical epithelial cells. Expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is often increased in cervical dysplasia and carcinoma, and HPV oncoproteins stimulate cell growth via the EGFR pathway. We found that erlotinib, a specific inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine kinase activity, prevented immortalization of cultured human cervical epithelial cells by the complete HPV-16 genome or the E6/E7 oncogenes. Erlotinib stimulated apoptosis in cells that expressed HPV-16 E6/E7 proteins and induced senescence in a subpopulation of cells that did not undergo apoptosis. Since immortalization by HPV E6/E7 is an important early event in cervical carcinogenesis, the EGFR is a potential target for chemoprevention or therapy in women who have a high risk for cervical cancer

    Nitrogen but not phosphorus addition affects symbiotic N2 fixation by legumes in natural and semi‑natural grasslands located on four continents

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    The amount of nitrogen (N) derived from symbiotic N2 fixation by legumes in grasslands might be affected by anthropogenic N and phosphorus (P) inputs, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. Methods We evaluated symbiotic N2 fixation in 17 natural and semi-natural grasslands on four continents that are subjected to the same full-factorial N and P addition experiment, using the 15N natural abundance method. Results N as well as combined N and P (NP) addition reduced aboveground legume biomass by 65% and 45%, respectively, compared to the control, whereas P addition had no significant impact. Addition of N and/or P had no significant effect on the symbiotic N2 fixation per unit legume biomass. In consequence, the amount of N fixed annually per grassland area was less than half in the N addition treatments compared to control and P addition, irrespective of whether the dominant legumes were annuals or perennials. Conclusion Our results reveal that N addition mainly impacts symbiotic N2 fixation via reduced biomass of legumes rather than changes in N2 fixation per unit legume biomass. The results show that soil N enrichment by anthropogenic activities significantly reduces N 2 fixation in grasslands, and these effects cannot be reversed by additional P amendment.EEA Santa CruzFil: Vázquez, Eduardo. University of Bayreuth. Department of Soil Ecology. Bayreuth Center of Ecology and Environmental Research (BayCEER); AlemaniaFil: Vázquez, Eduardo. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Department of Soil and Environment; SueciaFil: Schleuss, Per‑Marten. University of Bayreuth. Department of Soil Ecology. Bayreuth Center of Ecology and Environmental Research (BayCEER); AlemaniaFil: Borer, Elizabeth T. University of Minnesota. Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior; Estados UnidosFil: Bugalho, Miguel N. University of Lisbon. Centre for Applied Ecology “Prof. Baeta Neves” (CEABN-InBIO). School of Agriculture; Portugal.Fil: Caldeira, Maria. C. University of Lisbon. Forest Research Centre. School of Agriculture; Portugal.Fil: Eisenhauer, Nico. German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research; AlemaniaFil: Eisenhauer, Nico. Leipzig University. Institute of Biology; AlemaniaFil: Eskelinen, Anu. German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research; AlemaniaFil: Eskelinen, Anu. Physiological Diversity, Helmholtz Centrefor Environmental Research; AlemaniaFil: Eskelinen, Anu. University of Oulu. Ecology & Genetics; FinlandiaFil: Fay, Philip A. Grassland Soil and Water Research Laboratory (USDA-ARS); Estados UnidosFil: Haider, Sylvia. German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research; AlemaniaFil: Haider, Sylvia. Martin Luther University. Institute of Biology. Geobotany and Botanical Garden; AlemaniaFil: Jentsch, Anke. University of Bayreuth. Department of Soil Ecology. Bayreuth Center of Ecology and Environmental Research (BayCEER); AlemaniaFil: Kirkman, Kevin P. University of KwaZulu-Natal. School of Life Sciences; SudáfricaFil: McCulley, Rebecca L. University of Kentucky. Department of Plant and Soil Sciences; Estados UnidosFil: Peri, Pablo Luis. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA). Estación Experimental Agropecuaria Santa Cruz; Argentina.Fil: Peri, Pablo Luis. Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia Austral; Argentina.Fil: Peri, Pablo Luis. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina.Fil: Price, Jodi. Charles Sturt University. Institute for Land, Water and Society; Australia.Fil: Richards, Anna E. CSIRO Land and Water. Northern Territory; Australia.Fil: Risch, Anita C. Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL; SuizaFil: Roscher, Christiane. German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research; AlemaniaFil: Roscher, Christiane. Physiological Diversity, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research; AlemaniaFil: Schütz, Martin. Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL; SuizaFil: Seabloom, Eric William. University of Minnesota. Dept. of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior; Estados UnidosFil: Standish, Rachel J. Murdoch University. Harry Butler Institute; Australia.Fil: Stevens, Carly J. Lancaster University. Lancaster Environment Centre; Reino UnidoFil: Tedder, Michelle J. University of KwaZulu-Natal. School of Life Sciences; SudáfricaFil: Virtanen, Risto. University of Oulu. Ecology & Genetics; Finlandia.Fil: Spohn, Marie. University of Bayreuth. Department of Soil Ecology. Bayreuth Center of Ecology and Environmental Research (BayCEER); AlemaniaFil: Spohn, Marie. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Department of Soil and Environment; Sueci

    Nitrogen but not phosphorus addition affects symbiotic N-2 fixation by legumes in natural and semi-natural grasslands located on four continents

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    Background and aims: The amount of nitrogen (N) derived from symbiotic N-2 fixation by legumes in grasslands might be affected by anthropogenic N and phosphorus (P) inputs, but the underlying mechanisms are not known.Methods: We evaluated symbiotic N-2 fixation in 17 natural and semi-natural grasslands on four continents that are subjected to the same full-factorial N and P addition experiment, using the N-15 natural abundance method.Results: N as well as combined N and P (NP) addition reduced aboveground legume biomass by 65% and 45%, respectively, compared to the control, whereas P addition had no significant impact. Addition of N and/or P had no significant effect on the symbiotic N-2 fixation per unit legume biomass. In consequence, the amount of N fixed annually per grassland area was less than half in the N addition treatments compared to control and P addition, irrespective of whether the dominant legumes were annuals or perennials.Conclusion: Our results reveal that N addition mainly impacts symbiotic N-2 fixation via reduced biomass of legumes rather than changes in N-2 fixation per unit legume biomass. The results show that soil N enrichment by anthropogenic activities significantly reduces N-2 fixation in grasslands, and these effects cannot be reversed by additional P amendment

    Nothing lasts forever: Dominant species decline under rapid environmental change in global grasslands

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    Dominance often indicates one or a few species being best suited for resource capture and retention in a given environment. Press perturbations that change availability of limiting resources can restructure competitive hierarchies, allowing new species to capture or retain resources and leaving once dominant species fated to decline. However, dominant species may maintain high abundances even when their new environments no longer favour them due to stochastic processes associated with their high abundance, impeding deterministic processes that would otherwise diminish them. Here, we quantify the persistence of dominance by tracking the rate of decline in dominant species at 90 globally distributed grassland sites under experimentally elevated soil nutrient supply and reduced vertebrate consumer pressure. We found that chronic experimental nutrient addition and vertebrate exclusion caused certain subsets of species to lose dominance more quickly than in control plots. In control plots, perennial species and species with high initial cover maintained dominance for longer than annual species and those with low initial cover respectively. In fertilized plots, species with high initial cover maintained dominance at similar rates to control plots, while those with lower initial cover lost dominance even faster than similar species in controls. High initial cover increased the estimated time to dominance loss more strongly in plots with vertebrate exclosures than in controls. Vertebrate exclosures caused a slight decrease in the persistence of dominance for perennials, while fertilization brought perennials' rate of dominance loss in line with those of annuals. Annual species lost dominance at similar rates regardless of treatments. Synthesis. Collectively, these results point to a strong role of a species' historical abundance in maintaining dominance following environmental perturbations. Because dominant species play an outsized role in driving ecosystem processes, their ability to remain dominant—regardless of environmental conditions—is critical to anticipating expected rates of change in the structure and function of grasslands. Species that maintain dominance while no longer competitively favoured following press perturbations due to their historical abundances may result in community compositions that do not maximize resource capture, a key process of system responses to global change.Fil: Wilfahrt, Peter A.. University of Minnesota; Estados UnidosFil: Seabloom, Eric. University of Minnesota; Estados UnidosFil: Bakker, Jonathan. University of Washington; Estados UnidosFil: Biederman, Lori. Iowa State University; Estados UnidosFil: Bugalho, Miguel N.. Universidade Nova de Lisboa; PortugalFil: Cadotte, Marc W.. University of Toronto–Scarborough; Estados UnidosFil: Caldeira, Maria C.. Universidade Nova de Lisboa; PortugalFil: Catford, Jane A.. University of Melbourne; AustraliaFil: Chen, Qingqing. Peking University; China. German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research; AlemaniaFil: Donohue, Ian. Trinity College Dublin; IrlandaFil: Ebeling, Anne. University of Jena; AlemaniaFil: Eisenhauer, Nico. German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research; Alemania. Leipzig University; AlemaniaFil: Haider, Sylvia. Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg; Alemania. Leuphana University of Lüneburg; AlemaniaFil: Heckman, Robert W.. University of Texas; Estados Unidos. United States Forest Service; Estados UnidosFil: Jentsch, Anke. University of Bayreuth; AlemaniaFil: Koerner, Sally E.. University of North Carolina Greensboro; Estados UnidosFil: Komatsu, Kimberly J.. University of North Carolina Greensboro; Estados UnidosFil: Laungani, Ramesh. Poly Prep Country Day School; Estados UnidosFil: MacDougall, Andrew. University of Guelph; CanadáFil: Smith, Nicholas G.. Texas Tech University; Estados UnidosFil: Stevens, Carly J.. Lancaster University; Reino UnidoFil: Sullivan, Lauren L.. Michigan State University; Estados Unidos. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; ArgentinaFil: Tedder, Michelle. University of KwaZulu-Natal; SudáfricaFil: Peri, Pablo Luis. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro de Investigaciones y Transferencia de Santa Cruz. Universidad Tecnológica Nacional. Facultad Regional Santa Cruz. Centro de Investigaciones y Transferencia de Santa Cruz. Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia Austral. Centro de Investigaciones y Transferencia de Santa Cruz; ArgentinaFil: Tognetti, Pedro Maximiliano. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; ArgentinaFil: Veen, Ciska. Netherlands Institute of Ecology; Países BajosFil: Wheeler, George. University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Estados UnidosFil: Young, Alyssa L.. University of North Carolina Greensboro; Estados UnidosFil: Young, Hillary. University of California; Estados UnidosFil: Borer, Elizabeth. University of Minnesota; Estados Unido

    Insights Into the Biogeochemical Cycling of Iron, Nitrate, and Phosphate Across a 5,300 km South Pacific Zonal Section (153°E–150°W)

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    Iron, phosphate and nitrate are essential nutrients for phytoplankton growth and hence their supply into the surface ocean controls oceanic primary production. Here, we present a GEOTRACES zonal section (GP13; 30-33oS, 153oE-150oW) extending eastwards from Australia to the oligotrophic South Pacific Ocean gyre outlining the concentrations of these key nutrients. Surface dissolved iron concentrations are elevated at >0.4 nmol L-1 near continental Australia (west of 165°E) and decreased eastward to ≤0.2 nmol L-1 (170oW-150oW). The supply of dissolved iron into the upper ocean (<100m) from the atmosphere and vertical diffusivity averaged 11 ±10 nmol m-2 d-1. In the remote South Pacific Ocean (170oW-150oW) atmospherically sourced iron is a significant contributor to the surface dissolved iron pool with average supply contribution of 23 ± 17% (range 3% to 55%). Surface-water nitrate concentrations averaged 5 ±4 nmol L-1 between 170oW and 150oW whilst surface-water phosphate concentrations averaged 58 ±30 nmol L-1. The supply of nitrogen into the upper ocean is primarily from deeper waters (24-1647 μmol m-2 d-1) with atmospheric deposition and nitrogen fixation contributing <1% to the overall flux, in remote South Pacific waters. The deep water N:P ratio averaged 16 ±3 but declined to <1 above the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) indicating a high N:P assimilation ratio by phytoplankton leading to almost quantitative removal of nitrate. The supply stoichiometry for iron and nitrogen relative to phosphate at and above the DCM declines eastward leading to two biogeographical provinces: one with diazotroph production and the other without diazotroph production
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