442 research outputs found

    Augustana Historical Society Publications Volume V

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    Table of Contents: C. W. Foss: an appreciation / George M. Stephenson -- Diary kept by L. P. Esbjorn, 1849 / O. L. Nordstrom -- Reports to the American Home Missionary Society, 1849-1856 / Conrad Bergendoff -- The sources of the original constitution of the Augustana Synod / Conrad Bergendoff -- Early letters to Erland Carlsson / E. W. Olson -- Sources on revolutionary Europe : A selected list from the Charles XV Collection / George Gordon Andrews -- The Augustana Historical Society, 1930-1935 / O. L. Nordstrom -- In memoriam.https://digitalcommons.augustana.edu/ahsbooks/1011/thumbnail.jp

    How much do delayed health care seeking, delayed care provision and diversion from primary care contribute to the transmission of STIs

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    Objectives: To explore the changing pattern of condom use from 1990 to 2000; to identify sociodemographic and behavioural factors associated with condom use; and reasons for condom use in 2000. Methods: Large probability sample surveys administered among those resident in Britain aged 16–44 (n = 13 765 in 1990, n = 11 161 in 2000). Face to face interviews with self completion components collected sociodemographic, behavioural, and attitudinal data. Results: Condom use in the past year among sexually active 16–24 year old men increased from 61.0% in 1990 to 82.1% in 2000 (p<0.0001), and from 42.0% to 63.2% (p<0.0001) among women of the same age, with smaller increases among older age groups. Among individuals reporting at least two partners in the previous 4 week period, approximately two thirds reported inconsistent or no condom use (63.1% (95% CI 55.9% to 69.8%) of the men and 68.5% (95% CI 57.6% to 77.7%) of the women). Conclusions: Rates of condom use increased substantially between 1990 and 2000, particularly among young people. However, inconsistent condom use by individuals with high rates of partner acquisition may contribute significantly to the recent resurgence in STIs. This group is an important target for intensive and specific sexual health interventions

    The Extrasolar Planet epsilon Eridani b - Orbit and Mass

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    Hubble Space Telescope observations of the nearby (3.22 pc), K2 V star epsilon Eridani have been combined with ground-based astrometric and radial velocity data to determine the mass of its known companion. We model the astrometric and radial velocity measurements simultaneously to obtain the parallax, proper motion, perturbation period, perturbation inclination, and perturbation size. Because of the long period of the companion, \eps b, we extend our astrometric coverage to a total of 14.94 years (including the three year span of the \HST data) by including lower-precision ground-based astrometry from the Allegheny Multichannel Astrometric Photometer. Radial velocities now span 1980.8 -- 2006.3. We obtain a perturbation period, P = 6.85 +/- 0.03 yr, semi-major axis, alpha =1.88 +/- 0.20 mas, and inclination i = 30.1 +/- 3.8 degrees. This inclination is consistent with a previously measured dust disk inclination, suggesting coplanarity. Assuming a primary mass M_* = 0.83 M_{\sun}, we obtain a companion mass M = 1.55 +/- 0.24 M_{Jup}. Given the relatively young age of epsilon Eri (~800 Myr), this accurate exoplanet mass and orbit can usefully inform future direct imaging attempts. We predict the next periastron at 2007.3 with a total separation, rho = 0.3 arcsec at position angle, p.a. = -27 degrees. Orbit orientation and geometry dictate that epsilon Eri b will appear brightest in reflected light very nearly at periastron. Radial velocities spanning over 25 years indicate an acceleration consistent with a Jupiter-mass object with a period in excess of 50 years, possibly responsible for one feature of the dust morphology, the inner cavity

    SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first trimester and the risk of early miscarriage: a UK population-based prospective cohort study of 3041 pregnancies conceived during the pandemic

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    STUDY QUESTION: Does maternal infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in the first trimester affect the risk of miscarriage before 13 week's gestation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Pregnant women with self-reported diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 in the first trimester had a higher risk of early miscarriage. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Viral infections during pregnancy have a broad spectrum of placental and neonatal pathology. Data on the effects of the SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy are still emerging. Two systematic reviews and meta-analyses reported an increased risk of preterm birth, caesarean delivery, maternal morbidity and stillbirth. Data on the impact of first trimester infection on early pregnancy outcomes are scarce. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to investigate the rates of early pregnancy loss during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak among women with self-reported infection. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This was a nationwide prospective cohort study of pregnant women in the community recruited using social media between 21st May and 31st December, 2020. We recruited 3545 women who conceived during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic who were less than 13 week's gestation at the time of recruitment. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The COVID-19 Contraception and Pregnancy Study (CAP-COVID) was an on-line survey study collecting longitudinal data from pregnant women in the UK aged 18 years or older. Women who were pregnant during the pandemic were asked to complete on-line surveys at the end of each trimester. We collected data on current and past pregnancy complications, their medical history and whether they or anyone in their household had symptoms or been diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection during each trimester of their pregnancy. RT-PCR-based SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection from respiratory samples (e.g., nasopharynx) is the standard practice for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 in the UK. We compared rate of self-reported miscarriage in three groups: 'presumed infected' i.e those who reported a diagnosis with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first trimester; 'uncertain' i.e those who did not report a diagnosis but had symptoms/household contacts with symptoms/diagnosis; and 'presumed uninfected' i.e., those who did not report any symptoms/diagnosis and had no household contacts with symptoms/diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: A total of 3545 women registered for the CAP-COVID study at less than 13 weeks gestation and were eligible for this analysis. Data for the primary outcome were available from 3041 women (86%). In the overall sample, the rate of self-reported miscarriage was 7.8% (238/3041 [95% CI, 7-9]). The median gestational age at miscarriage was 9 weeks (interquartile range 8-11). Seventy-seven women were in the 'presumed infected' group (77/3041, 2.5% [95% CI 2 - 3]), 295/3041 were in the uncertain group (9.7%, [95% CI 9-11]) and the rest in the 'presumed uninfected' (87.8%, 2669/3041, [95% CI 87-89]). The rate of early miscarriage was 14% in the 'presumed infected' group, 5% in the 'uncertain' and 8% in the 'presumed uninfected' (11/77 [95% CI 6-22] versus15/295, [95% CI 3-8] versus 212/2669 [95% CI 7-9], p = 0.02). After adjusting for age, BMI, ethnicity, smoking status, gestational age at registration and the number of previous miscarriages, the risk of early miscarriage appears to be higher in the 'presumed infected' group (relative rate 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-3.0, p = 0.06). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: We relied on self-reported data on early pregnancy loss and SARS-CoV-2 infection without any means of checking validity. Some women in the 'presumed uninfected' and 'uncertain' groups may have had asymptomatic infections. The number of 'presumed infected' in our study was low and therefore the study was relatively underpowered. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: This was a national study from the UK, where infection rates were one of the highest in the world. Based on the evidence presented here, women who are infected with SARS-CoV-2 in their first trimester may be at an increased risk of a miscarriage. However, the overall rate of miscarriage in our study population was 8%. This is reassuring and suggests that if there is an effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the risk of miscarriage, this may be limited to those with symptoms substantial enough to lead to a diagnostic test. Further studies are warranted to evaluate a causal association between SARS-CoV-2 infection in early pregnancy and miscarriage risk. Although we did not see an overall increase in the risk of miscarriage, the observed comparative increase in the presumed infected group reinforces the message that pregnant women should continue to exercise social distancing measures and good hygiene throughout their pregnancy to limit their risk of infection. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This study was supported by a grant from the Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Hospital Charity, (G13-559194). The funders of the study had no role in study design, data collection, data analysis, data interpretation, or writing of the report. JAH is supported by an NIHR Advanced Fellowship. ALD is supported by the National Institute for Health Research University College London Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre. All authors have completed the ICMJE uniform disclosure form at www.icmje.org/coi_disclosure.pdf and declare: support to JAH and ALD as above; no financial relationships with any organisations that might have an interest in the submitted work in the previous 3 years; no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: n/a

    The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland consensus guidelines in emergency colorectal surgery

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    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Review and editing: S.R. Brown, Professor of Surgery, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, UK. Email [email protected]. Patient summary: R.G. Arnott, Retired Professor, Patient Liaison Group, Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland, Royal College of Surgeons of England, London, UK. Email [email protected]. Delphi review: C.P. Macklin. BMedSci BM BS FRCS DM, Consultant Colorectal Surgeon, Mid Yorkshire Hospitals, UK. Email [email protected] reviewedPublisher PD

    Live, Attenuated Influenza A H5N1 Candidate Vaccines Provide Broad Cross-Protection in Mice and Ferrets

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    BACKGROUND: Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic influenza A H5N1 viruses in humans and avian species that began in Asia and have spread to other continents underscore an urgent need to develop vaccines that would protect the human population in the event of a pandemic. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Live, attenuated candidate vaccines possessing genes encoding a modified H5 hemagglutinin (HA) and a wild-type (wt) N1 neuraminidase from influenza A H5N1 viruses isolated in Hong Kong and Vietnam in 1997, 2003, and 2004, and remaining gene segments derived from the cold-adapted (ca) influenza A vaccine donor strain, influenza A/Ann Arbor/6/60 ca (H2N2), were generated by reverse genetics. The H5N1 ca vaccine viruses required trypsin for efficient growth in vitro, as predicted by the modification engineered in the gene encoding the HA, and possessed the temperature-sensitive and attenuation phenotypes specified by the internal protein genes of the ca vaccine donor strain. More importantly, the candidate vaccines were immunogenic in mice. Four weeks after receiving a single dose of 10(6) 50% tissue culture infectious doses of intranasally administered vaccines, mice were fully protected from lethality following challenge with homologous and antigenically distinct heterologous wt H5N1 viruses from different genetic sublineages (clades 1, 2, and 3) that were isolated in Asia between 1997 and 2005. Four weeks after receiving two doses of the vaccines, mice and ferrets were fully protected against pulmonary replication of homologous and heterologous wt H5N1 viruses. CONCLUSIONS: The promising findings in these preclinical studies of safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the H5N1 ca vaccines against antigenically diverse H5N1 vaccines provide support for their careful evaluation in Phase 1 clinical trials in humans

    Thermochronology of the modern Indus River bedload: New insight into the controls on the marine stratigraphic record

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    The Indus River is the only major drainage in the western Himalaya and delivers a long geological record of continental erosion to the Arabian Sea, which may be deciphered and used to reconstruct orogenic growth if the modern bedload can be related to the mountains. In this study we collected thermochronologic data from river sediment collected near the modern delta. U-Pb ages of zircons spanning 3 Gyr show that only ∼5% of the eroding crust has been generated since India-Asia collision. The Greater Himalaya are the major source of zircons, with additional contributions from the Karakoram and Lesser Himalaya. The 39Ar/40Ar dating of muscovites gives ages that cluster between 10 and 25 Ma, differing from those recorded in the Bengal Fan. Biotite ages are generally younger, ranging 0–15 Ma. Modern average exhumation rates are estimated at ∼0.6 km/m.y. or less, and have slowed progressively since the early Miocene (∼20 Ma), although fission track (FT) dating of apatites may indicate a recent moderate acceleration in rates since the Pliocene (∼1.0 km/m.y.) driven by climate change. The 39Ar/40Ar and FT techniques emphasize the dominance of high topography in controlling the erosional flux to the ocean. Localized regions of tectonically driven, very rapid exhumation (e.g., Nanga Parbat, S. Karakoram metamorphic domes) do not dominate the erosional record