6,528 research outputs found

    Random networks of cross-linked directed polymers

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    We explore the effect of random permanent cross-links on a system of directed polymers confined between two planes with their end-points free to slide on them. We treat the cross-links as quenched disorder and we use a semimicroscopic replica field theory to study the structure and elasticity of this system. Upon increasing the cross-link density, we get a continuous gelation transition signaled by the emergence of a finite in-plane localization length. The distribution of localization length turns out to depend on the height along the preferred direction of the directed polymers. The gelation transition also gives rise to a finite in-plane shear modulus which we calculate and turns out to be universal, i.e., independent of the energy and length scales of the polymers and the cross-links. Using a symmetry argument, we show that cross-links of negligible extent along the preferred axis of the directed polymers do not cause any renormalization to the tilt modulus of the uncross-linked system.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figure

    Liquidity Effects of Changes in a Pan-European Stock Index

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    Adding or deleting a security to or from an index can influence the share price considerably. A possible explanation that has been brought forward in the literature is the liquidity hypothesis according to which an increase in liquidity after an addition is responsible for the observed rise in value. In the following paper, we examine liquidity effects on securities that have been added to or deleted from the pan- European index STOXX 50 between 1998 and 2003, using bid-ask spreads as indicators for liquidity. While there is a medium term price effect, bid-ask spreads do not change significantly due to the index addition or deletion. Regression analysis shows that the explanatory power of bid- ask spreads for the observed price effect is negligible. As a consequence of our empirical findings, the liquidity hypothesis has to be rejected for the STOXX 50. This result, however, does not appear particularly surprising, as the STOXX 50 is composed of already highly liquid securities whose trading liquidity appears not to depend on membership in an international index. A possible explanation for the rejection of the liquidity hypothesis is that the applicability of the liquidity hypothesis hinges on the liquidity class of the stocks concerned before being added. Marginal increases of liquidity due to an index addition might decline with larger initial liquidity of the stocks added. Subsequent studies could focus on the particular shape of this 'liquidity curve' of stocks.Pan-European stock index, index effect, STOXX, liquidity, price effect

    Valuing Joint Ventures Using Real Options

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    As the valuation of strategic measures becomes increasingly important, relatively few articles have discussed the valuation methods pertained for joint ventures. This paper shows that real options contribute to a better valuation of joint venture projects through superior reflection of the value drivers compared to traditional valuation methodology. Particularly, the strategic value of a joint venture and the value of flexibility that stems from a less than full commitment can be determined using options valuation. Besides reviewing the basics of real options, the paper discusses the key levers of joint ventures and shows the power of real options in the valuation process. We apply four option types (option to defer, option to expand/acquisition option, option to innovate, and option to abandon) to an imaginary joint venture example and show how to use the Black/Scholes and binomial valuation techniques to value these options. Of the four option types, particularly the option to innovate is important, as it allows to reflect the strategic value of a joint venture generating future business opportunities. Despite its advantages, this valuation methodology also has some drawbacks that are discussed in the concluding section.Joint ventures, real options, option valuation, Black/Scholes model, binomial option valuation

    Stability of freely falling granular streams

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    A freely falling stream of weakly cohesive granular particles is modeled and analysed with help of event driven simulations and continuum hydrodynamics. The former show a breakup of the stream into droplets, whose size is measured as a function of cohesive energy. Extensional flow is an exact solution of the one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation, corresponding to a strain rate, decaying like 1/t from its initial value, gammaDot0. Expanding around this basic state, we show that the flow is stable for short times (gammaDot0 * t << 1), whereas for long times (gammaDot0 * t >> 1) perturbations of all wavelength grow. The growthrate of a given wavelength depends on the instant of time when the fluctuation occurs, so that the observable patterns can vary considerably.Comment: 4 page, 5 figures. Submitted to PRL. Supplementary material: see http://wwwuser.gwdg.de/~sulrich/research/#Publication

    Influence of friction on granular segregation

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    Vertical shaking of a mixture of small and large beads can lead to segregation where the large beads either accumulate at the top of the sample, the so called Brazil Nut effect (BNE), or at the bottom, the Reverse Brazil Nut effect (RBNE). Here we demonstrate experimentally a sharp transition from the RBNE to the BNE when the particle coefficient of friction increases due to aging of the particles. This result can be explained by the two competing mechanisms of buoyancy and sidewall-driven convection, where the latter is assumed to grow in strength with increasing friction.Comment: 3 pages, 2 figure

    Cooling and aggregation in wet granulates

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    Wet granular materials are characterized by a defined bond energy in their particle interaction such that breaking a bond implies an irreversible loss of a fixed amount of energy. Associated with the bond energy is a nonequilibrium transition, setting in as the granular temperature falls below the bond energy. The subsequent aggregation of particles into clusters is shown to be a self-similar growth process with a cluster size distribution that obeys scaling. In the early phase of aggregation the clusters are fractals with D_f=2, for later times we observe gelation. We use simple scaling arguments to derive the temperature decay in the early and late stages of cooling and verify our results with event-driven simulations.Comment: 4 pages, 6 figures, suggestions of the referees implemented, EPAPS supplementary material added: http://netserver.aip.org/cgi-bin/epaps?ID=E-PRLTAO-102-00391

    No temporal association between influenza outbreaks and invasive pneumococcal infections

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    Objective: To assess whether the influenza peak in populations precedes the annual peak for invasive pneumococcal infections (IPI) in winter.Design: Ecological study. Active surveillance data on influenza A and IPI in children up to 16 years of age collected from 1997 to 2003 were analysed.Setting: Paediatric hospitals in Germany.Patients: Children under 16 years of age.Results: In all years under study, the influenza A season did not appear to affect the IPI season (p = 0.49). Specifically, the influenza peak never preceded the IPI peak.Conclusion: On a population level there was no indication that the annual influenza epidemic triggered the winter increase in the IPI rate or the peak of the IPI distribution in children
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