126 research outputs found

    Distinct transthyretin oxidation isoform profile in spinal fluid from patients with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment

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    BACKGROUND: Transthyretin (TTR), an abundant protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), contains a free, oxidation-prone cysteine residue that gives rise to TTR isoforms. These isoforms may reflect conditions in vivo. Since increased oxidative stress has been linked to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) it is of interest to characterize CSF-TTR isoform distribution in AD patients and controls. Here, TTR isoforms are profiled directly from CSF by an optimized immunoaffinity-mass spectrometry method in 76 samples from patients with AD (n = 37), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 17)), and normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH, n = 15), as well as healthy controls (HC, n = 7). Fractions of three specific oxidative modifications (S-cysteinylation, S-cysteinylglycinylation, and S-glutathionylation) were quantitated relative to the total TTR protein. Results were correlated with diagnostic information and with levels of CSF AD biomarkers tau, phosphorylated tau, and amyloid β(1-42) peptide. RESULTS: Preliminary data highlighted the high risk of artifactual TTR modification due to ex vivo oxidation and thus the samples for this study were all collected using strict and uniform guidelines. The results show that TTR is significantly more modified on Cys(10) in the AD and MCI groups than in controls (NPH and HC) (p ≤ 0.0012). Furthermore, the NPH group, while having normal TTR isoform distribution, had significantly decreased amyloid β peptide but normal tau values. No obvious correlations between levels of routine CSF biomarkers for AD and the degree of TTR modification were found. CONCLUSIONS: AD and MCI patients display a significantly higher fraction of oxidatively modified TTR in CSF than the control groups of NPH patients and HC. Quantitation of CSF-TTR isoforms thus may provide diagnostic information in patients with dementia symptoms but this should be explored in larger studies including prospective studies of MCI patients. The development of methods for simple, robust, and reproducible inhibition of in vitro oxidation during CSF sampling and sample handling is highly warranted. In addition to the diagnostic information the possibility of using TTR as a CSF oxymeter is of potential value in studies monitoring disease activity and developing new drugs for neurodegenerative diseases

    Road traffic noise exposure and filled prescriptions for antihypertensive medication:A danish cohort study

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    Background: Epidemiological research on effects of transportation noise on incident hypertension is inconsistent. Objectives: We aimed to investigate whether residential road traffic noise increases the risk for hypertension. Methods: In a population-based cohort of 57,053 individuals 50–64 years of age at enrollment, we identified 21,241 individuals who fulfilled our case definition of filling ≥2 prescriptions and ≥180 defined daily doses of antihypertensive drugs (AHTs) within a year, during a mean follow-up time of 14.0 y. Residential addresses from 1987 to 2016 were obtained from national registers, and road traffic noise at the most exposed façade as well as the least exposed façade was modeled for all addresses. Analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: We found no associations between the 10-y mean exposure to road traffic noise and filled prescriptions for AHTs, with incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of 0.999 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.980, 1.019)] per 10-dB increase in road traffic noise at the most exposed façade and of 1.001 (95% CI: 0.977, 1.026) at the least exposed façade. Interaction analyses suggested an association with road traffic noise at the least exposed façade among subpopulations of current smokers and obese individuals. Conclusion: The present study does not support an association between road traffic noise and filled prescriptions for AHTs. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP627

    Association of genetic variants previously implicated in coronary artery disease with age at onset of coronary artery disease requiring revascularizations

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    BACKGROUND:The relation between burden of risk factors, familial coronary artery disease (CAD), and known genetic variants underlying CAD and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels is not well-explored in clinical samples. We aimed to investigate the association of these measures with age at onset of CAD requiring revascularizations in a clinical sample of patients undergoing first-time coronary angiography. METHODS:1599 individuals (mean age 64 years [min-max 29-96 years], 28% women) were genotyped (from blood drawn as part of usual clinical care) in the Copenhagen area (2010-2014). The burden of common genetic variants was measured as aggregated genetic risk scores (GRS) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) discovered in genome-wide association studies. RESULTS:Self-reported familial CAD (prevalent in 41% of the sample) was associated with -3.2 years (95% confidence interval -4.5, -2.2, p<0.0001) earlier need of revascularization in sex-adjusted models. Patients with and without familial CAD had similar mean values of CAD-GRS (unweighted scores 68.4 vs. 68.0, p = 0.10, weighted scores 67.7 vs. 67.5, p = 0.49) and LDL-C-GRS (unweighted scores 58.5 vs. 58.3, p = 0.34, weighted scores 63.3 vs. 61.1, p = 0.41). The correlation between the CAD-GRS and LDL-C-GRS was low (r = 0.14, p<0.001). In multivariable adjusted regression models, each 1 standard deviation higher values of LDL-C-GRS and CAD-GRS were associated with -0.70 years (95% confidence interval -1.25, -0.14, p = 0.014) and -0.51 years (-1.07, 0.04, p = 0.07) earlier need for revascularization, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Young individuals presenting with CAD requiring surgical interventions had a higher genetic burden of SNPs relating to LDL-C and CAD (although the latter was statistically non-significant), compared with older individuals. However, the absolute difference was modest, suggesting that genetic screening can currently not be used as an effective prediction tool of when in life a person will develop CAD. Whether undiscovered genetic variants can still explain a "missing heritability" in early-onset CAD warrants more research

    Subclinical leaflet thrombosis after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: no association with left ventricular reverse remodeling at 1-year follow-up

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    Hypo-attenuated leaflet thickening (HALT) of transcatheter aortic valves is detected on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and reflects leaflet thrombosis. Whether HALT affects left ventricular (LV) reverse remodeling, a favorable effect of LV afterload reduction after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association of HALT after TAVI with LV reverse remodeling. In this multicenter case-control study, patients with HALT on MDCT were identified, and patients without HALT were propensity matched for valve type and size, LV ejection fraction (LVEF), sex, age and time of scan. LV dimensions and function were assessed by transthoracic echocardiography before and 12 months after TAVI. Clinical outcomes (stroke or transient ischemic attack, heart failure hospitalization, new-onset atrial fibrillation, all-cause mortality) were recorded. 106 patients (age 81 +/- 7 years, 55% male) with MDCT performed 37 days [IQR 32-52] after TAVI were analyzed (53 patients with HALT and 53 matched controls). Before TAVI, all echocardiographic parameters were similar between the groups. At 12 months follow-up, patients with and without HALT showed a significant reduction in LV end-diastolic volume, LV end-systolic volume and LV mass index (from 125 +/- 37 to 105 +/- 46 g/m(2), p = 0.001 and from 127 +/- 35 to 101 +/- 27 g/m2, p < 0.001, respectively, p for interaction = 0.48). Moreover, LVEF improved significantly in both groups. In addition, clinical outcomes were not statistically different. Improvement in LVEF and LV reverse remodeling at 12 months after TAVI were not limited by HALT.</p

    Symptoms after Ingestion of Pig Whipworm Trichuris suis Eggs in a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Double-Blind Clinical Trial

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    Symptoms after human infection with the helminth Trichuris suis have not previously been described. Exposure to helminths has been suggested as immune therapy against allergy and autoimmune diseases. We randomized adults with allergic rhinitis to ingest a dose of 2500 T. suis eggs or placebo every 21 days for 168 days (total 8 doses) in a double-blind clinical trial. In a previous publication, we reported a lack of efficacy and a high prevalence of adverse gastrointestinal reactions. The aim of the present study was to present a detailed description of the adverse event data and post-hoc analyses of gastrointestinal reactions. Adverse events and severity (mild, moderate, severe) were recorded daily by subjects, classified by organ using MedDRA 10.0, and event rates compared between subjects on T. suis treatment vs. subjects on placebo. T. suis-specific serum IgG antibodies were measured by a fluoroenzymeimmunoassay (Phadia ApS). During 163 days complete follow-up, subjects ingesting T. suis eggs (N = 49) had a three to 19-fold higher rate of events (median duration, 2 days) with gastrointestinal reactions (moderate to severe flatulence, diarrhea, and upper abdominal pain) compared with placebo subjects (N = 47). The highest incidence of affected subjects was seen from the first few days and until day 42 (3rd dose): 63% vs. 29% for placebo; day 163: 76% vs. 49% for placebo. Seroprevalences increased concurrently in the T. suis group: Day 59, 50%; day 90, 91%; day 170, 93%. The combined duration of episodes with onset before day 42 was ≤14 days in 80% of affected subjects. Age, gender, total IgE, and recent intestinal symptoms at baseline did not predict gastrointestinal side effects. In conclusion, during the first 2 months, repeated ingestions of 2500 T. suis eggs caused frequent gastrointestinal reactions lasting up to 14 days, whereas 4 months further treatment mainly provoked a subclinical stimulation

    Mouse Transcobalamin Has Features Resembling both Human Transcobalamin and Haptocorrin

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    In humans, the cobalamin (Cbl) -binding protein transcobalamin (TC) transports Cbl from the intestine and into all the cells of the body, whereas the glycoprotein haptocorrin (HC), which is present in both blood and exocrine secretions, is able to bind also corrinoids other than Cbl. The aim of this study is to explore the expression of the Cbl-binding protein HC as well as TC in mice. BLAST analysis showed no homologous gene coding for HC in mice. Submaxillary glands and serum displayed one protein capable of binding Cbl. This Cbl-binding protein was purified from 300 submaxillary glands by affinity chromatography. Subsequent sequencing identified the protein as TC. Further characterization in terms of glycosylation status and binding specificity to the Cbl-analogue cobinamide revealed that mouse TC does not bind Concanavalin A sepharose (like human TC), but is capable of binding cobinamide (like human HC). Antibodies raised against mouse TC identified the protein in secretory cells of the submaxillary gland and in the ducts of the mammary gland, i.e. at locations where HC is also found in humans. Analysis of the TC-mRNA level showed a high TC transcript level in these glands and also in the kidney. By precipitation to insolubilised antibodies against mouse TC, we also showed that >97% of the Cbl-binding capacity and >98% of the Cbl were precipitated in serum. This indicates that TC is the only Cbl-binding protein in the mouse circulation. Our data show that TC but not HC is present in the mouse. Mouse TC is observed in tissues where humans express TC and/or HC. Mouse TC has features in common with both human TC and HC. Our results suggest that the Cbl-binding proteins present in the circulation and exocrine glands may vary amongst species