2,020 research outputs found

    Back action of graphene charge detectors on graphene and carbon nanotube quantum dots

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    We report on devices based on graphene charge detectors (CDs) capacitively coupled to graphene and carbon nanotube quantum dots (QDs). We focus on back action effects of the CD on the probed QD. A strong influence of the bias voltage applied to the CD on the current through the QD is observed. Depending on the charge state of the QD the current through the QD can either strongly increase or completely reverse as a response to the applied voltage on the CD. To describe the observed behavior we employ two simple models based on single electron transport in QDs with asymmetrically broadened energy distributions of the source and the drain leads. The models successfully explain the back action effects. The extracted distribution broadening shows a linear dependency on the bias voltage applied to the CD. We discuss possible mechanisms mediating the energy transfer between the CD and QD and give an explanation for the origin of the observed asymmetry.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figure

    Uniformity of the pseudomagnetic field in strained graphene

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    We present a study on the uniformity of the pseudomagnetic field in graphene as a function of the relative orientation between the graphene lattice and straining directions. For this, we strained a regular micron-sized graphene hexagon by deforming it symmetrically by displacing three of its edges. By simulations, we found that the pseudomagnetic field is strongest if the strain is applied perpendicular to the armchair direction of graphene. For a hexagon with a side length of 1 μ{\rm \mu}m, the pseudomagnetic field has a maximum of 1.2 T for an applied strain of 3.5% and it is uniform (variance <1< 1%) within a circle with a diameter of ∼520\sim 520 nm. This diameter is on the order of the typical diameter of the laser spot in a state-of-the-art confocal Raman spectroscopy setup, which suggests that observing the pseudomagnetic field in measurements of shifted magneto-phonon resonance is feasible.Comment: 7 pages, 5 figure

    Disorder induced Coulomb gaps in graphene constrictions with different aspect ratios

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    We present electron transport measurements on lithographically defined and etched graphene nanoconstrictions with different aspect ratios including different lengths (L) and widths (W). A roughly length-independent disorder induced effective energy gap can be observed around the charge neutrality point. This energy gap scales inversely with the width even in regimes where the length of the constriction is smaller than its width (L<W). In very short constrictions, we observe both resonances due to localized states or charged islands and an elevated overall conductance level (0.1-1e2/h), which is strongly length-dependent in the gap region. This makes very short graphene constrictions interesting for highly transparent graphene tunneling barriers.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

    Raman spectroscopy on mechanically exfoliated pristine graphene ribbons

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    We present Raman spectroscopy measurements of non-etched graphene nanoribbons, with widths ranging from 15 to 160 nm, where the D-line intensity is strongly dependent on the polarization direction of the incident light. The extracted edge disorder correlation length is approximately one order of magnitude larger than on previously reported graphene ribbons fabricated by reactive ion etching techniques. This suggests a more regular crystallographic orientation of the non-etched graphene ribbons here presented. We further report on the ribbons width dependence of the line-width and frequency of the long-wavelength optical phonon mode (G-line) and the 2D-line of the studied graphene ribbons

    Spin and charge transport in graphene-based spin transport devices with Co/MgO spin injection and spin detection electrodes

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    In this review we discuss spin and charge transport properties in graphene-based single-layer and few-layer spin-valve devices. We give an overview of challenges and recent advances in the field of device fabrication and discuss two of our fabrication methods in more detail which result in distinctly different device performances. In the first class of devices, Co/MgO electrodes are directly deposited onto graphene which results in rough MgO-to-Co interfaces and favor the formation of conducting pinholes throughout the MgO layer. We show that the contact resistance area product (Rc_cA) is a benchmark for spin transport properties as it scales with the measured spin lifetime in these devices indicating that contact-induced spin dephasing is the bottleneck for spin transport even in devices with large Rc_cA values. In a second class of devices, Co/MgO electrodes are first patterned onto a silicon substrate. Subsequently, a graphene-hBN heterostructure is directly transferred onto these prepatterned electrodes which provides improved interface properties. This is seen by a strong enhancement of both charge and spin transport properties yielding charge carrier mobilities exceeding 20000 cm2^2/(Vs) and spin lifetimes up to 3.7 ns at room temperature. We discuss several shortcomings in the determination of both quantities which complicates the analysis of both extrinsic and intrinsic spin scattering mechanisms. Furthermore, we show that contacts can be the origin of a second charge neutrality point in gate dependent resistance measurements which is influenced by the quantum capacitance of the underlying graphene layer.Comment: 19 pages, 8 figure

    Spatially Resolved Raman Spectroscopy of Single- and Few-Layer Graphene

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    We present Raman spectroscopy measurements on single- and few-layer graphene flakes. Using a scanning confocal approach we collect spectral data with spatial resolution, which allows us to directly compare Raman images with scanning force micrographs. Single-layer graphene can be distinguished from double- and few-layer by the width of the D' line: the single peak for single-layer graphene splits into different peaks for the double-layer. These findings are explained using the double-resonant Raman model based on ab-initio calculations of the electronic structure and of the phonon dispersion. We investigate the D line intensity and find no defects within the flake. A finite D line response originating from the edges can be attributed either to defects or to the breakdown of translational symmetry

    Time-resolved charge detection in graphene quantum dots

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    We present real-time detection measurements of electron tunneling in a graphene quantum dot. By counting single electron charging events on the dot, the tunneling process in a graphene constriction and the role of localized states are studied in detail. In the regime of low charge detector bias we see only a single time-dependent process in the tunneling rate which can be modeled using a Fermi-broadened energy distribution of the carriers in the lead. We find a non-monotonic gate dependence of the tunneling coupling attributed to the formation of localized states in the constriction. Increasing the detector bias above 2 mV results in an increase of the dot-lead transition rate related to back-action of the charge detector current on the dot.Comment: 8 pages, 6 figure

    Raman imaging of doping domains in graphene on SiO2

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    We present spatially resolved Raman images of the G and 2D lines of single-layer graphene flakes. The spatial fluctuations of G and 2D lines are correlated and are thus shown to be affiliated with local doping domains. We investigate the position of the 2D line -- the most significant Raman peak to identify single-layer graphene -- as a function of charging up to |n|~4 10^12 cm^-2. Contrary to the G line which exhibits a strong and symmetric stiffening with respect to electron and hole-doping, the 2D line shows a weak and slightly asymmetric stiffening for low doping. Additionally, the line width of the 2D line is, in contrast to the G line, doping-independent making this quantity a reliable measure for identifying single-layer graphene

    Imaging Localized States in Graphene Nanostructures

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    Probing techniques with spatial resolution have the potential to lead to a better understanding of the microscopic physical processes and to novel routes for manipulating nanostructures. We present scanning-gate images of a graphene quantum dot which is coupled to source and drain via two constrictions. We image and locate conductance resonances of the quantum dot in the Coulomb-blockade regime as well as resonances of localized states in the constrictions in real space.Comment: 18 pages, 7 figure

    Charge Detection in Graphene Quantum Dots

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    We report measurements on a graphene quantum dot with an integrated graphene charge detector. The quantum dot device consists of a graphene island (diameter approx. 200 nm) connected to source and drain contacts via two narrow graphene constrictions. From Coulomb diamond measurements a charging energy of 4.3 meV is extracted. The charge detector is based on a 45 nm wide graphene nanoribbon placed approx. 60 nm from the island. We show that resonances in the nanoribbon can be used to detect individual charging events on the quantum dot. The charging induced potential change on the quantum dot causes a step-like change of the current in the charge detector. The relative change of the current ranges from 10% up to 60% for detecting individual charging events.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figure
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