513 research outputs found

    Physio-Anatomical consideration of Upsneha & Upsweda with special reference to Garbh Poshan in Ayurveda - A Review

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    The science of Garbha Vyakaran has been always a subject of great interest for the persons devoted to it. The matter related to the concept of Garbha Vyakaran is systematically described in Ayurvedic literature. Nutrition of embryo mainly concerned with the mechanism involved in both the parts of mother and foetus to meet the requirements for growth and development during intra-uterine life. According to Ayurveda, it is the cessation of menses during pregnancy which affects the mammary glands of the breast and causes lactation for the post-natal feeding of the baby. Apart from the concept of nutritional supply through placenta which is well established in modern science, the relationship in between the changes occurring in the mother and in their body organs, have been tried to explain in the light of present knowledge

    Diagnostic accuracy of saline infusion sonography as compared to hysteroscopy in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding

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    Background: In patients with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), differentiating whether the cause is anovulation or anatomic lesions can be challenging. Transvaginal sonography (TVS) has limitation in form of high false negative rate for diagnosing focal intrauterine pathology. To improve the image in TVS, saline injected into uterine cavity can be used as a negative contrast agent. Aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical value of saline infusion sonography (SIS) by comparing its diagnostic accuracy with that of established gold standard i.e. hysteroscopy.Methods: The study was carried out in a referral and teaching public sector hospital in eastern India from July 2015 to June 2016. Study population consisted of 136 premenopausal women with AUB, who were scheduled to undergo diagnostic hysteroscopy. Patients were first evaluated by sis and then followed by hysteroscopy on a later date.Results: Both SIS and hysteroscopy could be successfully performed in 136 out of 144 patients. When all findings by SIS (any pathological findings in uterine cavity vs. none) were combined and compared with hysteroscopy (gold standard), both sensitivity and specificity of sis were 0.88 whereas PPV and NPV were 0.85 and 0.90 respectively.Conclusions: Because of comparable results obtained by evaluating patients by SIS as well as office hysteroscopy, we recommend saline infusion sonography as a valuable tool for evaluating premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding, before consideration for hysteroscopy

    Expectation of forward-backward rapidity correlations in p+pp+p collisions at the LHC energies

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    Forward-backward correlation strength (bb) as a function of pesudorapidity intervals for experimental data from p+pˉp+\bar{p} non-singly diffractive collisions are compared to PYTHIA and PHOJET model calculations. The correlations are discussed as a function of rapidity window (Δη\Delta \eta) symmetric about the central rapidity as well as rapidity window separated by a gap (ηgap\eta_{gap}) between forward and backward regions. While the correlations are observed to be independent of Δη\Delta \eta, it is found to decrease with increase in ηgap\eta_{gap}. This reflects the role of short range correlations and justifies the use of ηgap\eta_{gap} to obtain the accurate information about the physics of interest, the long range correlations. The experimental bb value shows a linear dependence on lns\ln \sqrt{s} with the maximum value of unity being reached at s\sqrt{s} = 16 TeV, beyond the top LHC energy. However calculations from the PYTHIA and PHOJET models indicate a deviation from linear dependence on lns\ln \sqrt{s} and saturation in the bb values being reached beyond s\sqrt{s} = 1.8 TeV. Such a saturation in correlation values could have interesting physical interpretations related to clan structures in particle production. Strong forward-backward correlations are associated with cluster production in the collisions. The average number of charged particles to which the clusters fragments, called the cluster size, are found to also increase linearly with lns\ln \sqrt{s} for both data and the models studied. The rate of increase in cluster size vs. lns\ln \sqrt{s} from models studied are larger compared to those from the data and higher for PHOJET compared to PYTHIA. Our study indicates that the forward-backward measurements will provide a clear distinguishing observable for the models studied at LHC energies.Comment: 15 pages, 14 Figures, accepted for publication in International Journal of Modern Physics

    Synergistic association of STX1A and VAMP2 with cryptogenic epilepsy in North Indian population

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    Introduction “Common epilepsies”, merely explored for genetics are the most frequent, nonfamilial, sporadic cases in hospitals. Because of their much debated molecular pathology, there is a need to focus on other neuronal pathways including the existing ion channels. Methods For this study, a total of 214 epilepsy cases of North Indian ethnicity comprising 59.81% generalized, 40.19% focal seizures, and based on epilepsy types, 17.29% idiopathic, 37.38% cryptogenic, and 45.33% symptomatic were enrolled. Additionally, 170 unrelated healthy individuals were also enrolled. Here, we hypothesize the involvement of epilepsy pathophysiology genes, that is, synaptic vesicle cycle, SVC genes (presynapse), ion channels and their functionally related genes (postsynapse). An interactive analysis was initially performed in SVC genes using multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR). Further, in order to understand the influence of ion channels and their functionally related genes, their interaction analysis with SVC genes was also performed. Results A significant interactive two-locus model of STX1A_rs4363087|VAMP2_rs2278637 (presynaptic genes) was observed among SVC variants in all epilepsy cases (P1000-value = 0.054; CVC = 9/10; OR = 2.86, 95%CI = 1.88–4.35). Further, subgroup analysis revealed stronger interaction for the same model in cryptogenic epilepsy patients only (P1000-value = 0.012; CVC = 10/10; OR = 4.59, 95%CI = 2.57–8.22). However, interactive analysis of presynaptic and postsynaptic genes did not show any significant association. Conclusions Significant synergistic interaction of SVC genes revealed the possible functional relatedness of presynapse with pathophysiology of cryptogenic epilepsy. Further, to establish the clinical utility of the results, replication in a large and similar phenotypic group of patients is warranted