85 research outputs found

    Visual Saliency Detection in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems

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    Visual Saliency refers to the innate human mechanism of focusing on and extracting important features from the observed environment. Recently, there has been a notable surge of interest in the field of automotive research regarding the estimation of visual saliency. While operating a vehicle, drivers naturally direct their attention towards specific objects, employing brain-driven saliency mechanisms that prioritize certain elements over others. In this investigation, we present an intelligent system that combines a drowsiness detection system for drivers with a scene comprehension pipeline based on saliency. To achieve this, we have implemented a specialized 3D deep network for semantic segmentation, which has been pretrained and tailored for processing the frames captured by an automotive-grade external camera. The proposed pipeline was hosted on an embedded platform utilizing the STA1295 core, featuring ARM A7 dual-cores, and embeds an hardware accelerator. Additionally, we employ an innovative biosensor embedded on the car steering wheel to monitor the driver drowsiness, gathering the PhotoPlethysmoGraphy (PPG) signal of the driver. A dedicated 1D temporal deep convolutional network has been devised to classify the collected PPG time-series, enabling us to assess the driver level of attentiveness. Ultimately, we compare the determined attention level of the driver with the corresponding saliency-based scene classification to evaluate the overall safety level. The efficacy of the proposed pipeline has been validated through extensive experimental results

    MatFuse: Controllable Material Generation with Diffusion Models

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    Creating high quality and realistic materials in computer graphics is a challenging and time-consuming task, which requires great expertise. In this paper, we present MatFuse, a novel unified approach that harnesses the generative power of diffusion models (DM) to simplify the creation of SVBRDF maps. Our DM-based pipeline integrates multiple sources of conditioning, such as color palettes, sketches, and pictures, enabling fine-grained control and flexibility in material synthesis. This design allows for the combination of diverse information sources (e.g., sketch + image embedding), enhancing creative possibilities in line with the principle of compositionality. We demonstrate the generative capabilities of the proposed method under various conditioning settings; on the SVBRDF estimation task, we show that our method yields performance comparable to state-of-the-art approaches, both qualitatively and quantitatively

    Automatic Cephalometric Analysis

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    Abstract Objective: To describe the techniques used for automatic landmarking of cephalograms, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each one and reviewing the percentage of success in locating each cephalometric point. Materials and Methods: The literature survey was performed by searching the Medline, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and the ISI Web of Science Citation Index databases. The survey covered the period from January 1966 to August 2006. Abstracts that appeared to fulfill the initial selection criteria were selected by consensus. The original articles were then retrieved. Their references were also hand-searched for possible missing articles. The search strategy resulted in 118 articles of which eight met the inclusion criteria. Many articles were rejected for different reasons; among these, the most frequent was that results of accuracy for automatic landmark recognition were presented as a percentage of success. Results: A marked difference in results was found between the included studies consisting of heterogeneity in the performance of techniques to detect the same landmark. All in all, hybrid approaches detected cephalometric points with a higher accuracy in contrast to the results for the same points obtained by the model-based, image filtering plus knowledge-based landmark search and "soft-computing" approaches. Conclusions: The systems described in the literature are not accurate enough to allow their use for clinical purposes. Errors in landmark detection were greater than those expected with manual tracing and, therefore, the scientific evidence supporting the use of automatic landmarking is low

    Bringing AI pipelines onto cloud-HPC: setting a baseline for accuracy of COVID-19 diagnosis

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    HPC is an enabling platform for AI. The introduction of AI workloads in the HPC applications basket has non-trivial consequences both on the way of designing AI applications and on the way of providing HPC computing. This is the leitmotif of the convergence between HPC and AI. The formalized definition of AI pipelines is one of the milestones of HPC-AI convergence. If well conducted, it allows, on the one hand, to obtain portable and scalable applications. On the other hand, it is crucial for the reproducibility of scientific pipelines. In this work, we advocate the StreamFlow Workflow Management System as a crucial ingredient to define a parametric pipeline, called “CLAIRE COVID-19 Universal Pipeline”, which is able to explore the optimization space of methods to classify COVID-19 lung lesions from CT scans, compare them for accuracy, and therefore set a performance baseline. The universal pipeline automatizes the training of many different Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) and many different hyperparameters. It, therefore, requires a massive computing power, which is found in traditional HPC infrastructure thanks to the portability-by-design of pipelines designed with StreamFlow. Using the universal pipeline, we identified a DNN reaching over 90% accuracy in detecting COVID-19 lesions in CT scans