106 research outputs found

    Overview of international organic market development and potential export markets for organic products of Ukraine

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    From the Summar of the Report Production At worldwide level in year 2003 66% of the world’s organic land (total 24 mio ha) are concentrated in two continents: Australia and Latin America. In these regions extensive grazing land is widespread beside the whole game of plant production, from cereals to coffee, tea and other tropical products. In Northern America the organic farmland achieves 1,5 mio ha. Europe has 23 % of the worldwide organic land (5,5 mio ha), these 5,5 mio ha correspond to almost 2% of agricultural land managed organically. Liechtenstein is with 26 % of agricultural area managed organically the leader followed by Aus-tria with 11% and Switzerland with 10%. In most countries the organically managed surface is still increasing. In the enlarged EU the area raised 4% from year 2002 to 2003, in the new countries of the EU (Poland, Estonia, Lithuania and Hungary) the growing rates of organic farm land is over 10%. Small declines have been observed in Denmark, The Netherlands, Italy and United Kingdom. In the European Union and Switzerland the agrarian policy supports organic sec-tor with different measurers like direct payments for organically managed area, contribution for conversion, payments for environmental services and animal wel-fare, training and capacity building, research programs etc. Ukraine was the granary of the former Soviet Union. Large surfaces of fertile black soils are favourable for organic farming. In Ukraine 230’000 ha are certified organic or in conversion in year 2003. This represents 0.58% of land area under organic management. 69 production units with an average size about 3’500 ha are certified. Wheat, barley, sunflower and corn are the most important crops on these farms. The organic production increased in the last years with the expecta-tion to get access to export markets. In Ukraine certified organic fruit and vegetable producers are missing. There is also nearly no animal husbandry farm certified. The potential for conversion of plant production units is high, because many farmers use few external inputs. For smaller farms, without access to export markets, the certification costs of international certifiers are unattainable. Until now the agrarian policy doesn’t support especially organic farming. The ministry of agriculture and the commission of the parliament for agriculture are in contact with the new organic farming association Biolan Ukraine and other stake-holders for the elaboration of a law for organic production. There is advisory and training capacity for organic farming but this is still insufficient for the whole country. Market overview Europe and Northern America are responsible for 97% of organic sales to con-sumers. There is a global harmonisation of market trends and buying behaviours. The organic consumer lives in urban centres, has a higher education which is transformed in higher income, is young and has children or is older with a healthy lifestyle. Important issues for this consumer are food and health (free of dangersafety, label, certification) and food and emotions (animal welfare, regional product). Important triggers for buying organic are children, allergies and healthy life-style. The barriers for not buying organic are the price, the availability and in general less importance given to nutrition. Between the countries there are significant differences in the importance of the sales channels from direct marketing included weekly markets and box schemes, specialised organic food shops to general food shops (retailer shops, supermarkets, and discounter). General food shops are the most important sales channels over all and especially in countries with mature food markets like Austria, Den-mark, France, Switzerland and United Kingdom. Germany with a well developed organic food market is an exception with only 35 % of sales in general food shops. The organic market is in a growing phase in Northern America (15%-30%), Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Portugal and Finland. The rest of the Euro-pean countries, the Ukrainian neighbours like Russia and the Baltic States, Asian countries like Korea and Chine and Middle East countries like Saudi Arabia are in the phase of emerging market. The most important markets (in value and in decreasing order) are: USA, Ger-many, United Kingdom, France, Italy, Canada and Switzerland. In Switzerland the average consumer spends 104 Euro on organic products per annum, this is the highest amount. The price premiums for organic food paid to the farmers in the EU countries in year 2000 vary tremendous between the countries and the products. For cereals the average was 102% and the highest average price premium for plant product was reported for potatoes with 257%. The price premiums for animal products paid in EU are in average lower (milk 22%, beef 34% pork 68%) than for plant products with exception of poultry with 182% and eggs with 167%. In Europe there are supply and demand imbalances: oversupply in milk and beef and supply gaps in cereals. European organic fruit, vegetables and cereals can normally be sold as organic within Europe. Tropical, off season and exotic (eth-nic) products are imported to Europe and Northern America. In Europe the self sufficiency degree shows big variations from country to country and product to product. In cereals for example in year 2001 Belgium has 2% self sufficiency and Spain 316%, France an exporter of conventional cereals reports self sufficiency degree for organic of 35%. Even more important then the self suf-ficiency degrees are supply gaps (national production and imports are not suffi-cient). In the OMIaRD market research there were expected the following supply deficit for year 2003/04: For wheat and barley in Germany and Slovenia, for rye in Slovenia and Finland, for oilseed in Germany, Finland and Sweden, for legumi-nous fodder crops in Austria, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands and United King-dom. Access to the EU and Swiss market is possible when the products are certified according to EU-standard (EU-regulations 2092/91 and 1804/99) or Swiss or-ganic ordinance. Depending on the market, other, mainly private, standards need to be fulfilled In Ukraine the national market for organic products is in the initial phase with some imported products like baby food, tea or coffee. The potential organic con-sumers are urban, younger professional women and young families with small children, from the new middle to upper class. At the moment they buy so called environmental clean products, with 20% to 100% price premium. These products are not certified; they are supposed to come from regions without relevant human made pollution and free of radioactivity. The Ukrainian consumers are aware of important organic issues like health and dangers residues. Up to now “organic” is not protected by law. Experts estimate that 5% to 10% of the Ukrainian products certified organic (mainly cereals and oilseeds) are sold as organic and exported to Western Europe

    Histological markers in nasal mucosa of patients with Alzheimer's disease

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    Neuropathological changes such as dystrophic neurites and the presence of abnormal tau protein in the olfactory system, including primary sensory cells and nerve fibres have previously been demonstrated in nasal mucosa tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). These changes were detected in autopsy-derived material from histopathologically confirmed AD cases as well as in biopsy tissue from clinical severely ill AD patients. To investigate the potential usefulness for the early diagnosis of AD, we obtained biopsy tissue from olfactory mucosa from 5 clinically mild to moderate AD patients and stained for the presence of tau or beta-amyloid by immunocytochemistry using a panel of specific antibodies. No positive staining was found in any of the cases. For comparison, post-mortem olfactory tissue from AD patients with severe neuropathological changes (widespread neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid in the brain) was investigated, in these severe cases, tau immunoreactivity was found in fine nerve fibres in the lamina propria and in a few olfactory epithelial cells. These results are consistent with other reports showing that cytoskeletal changes and tau pathology in the olfactory epithelium are not primary (or specific) features of AD and may occur predominantly in late stages of the disease

    Ermittlung von derzeitigen und absehbaren Vermarktungsproblemen entlang der Wertschöpfungskette differenziert nach Produktgruppen (Probleme hinsichtlich z.B. Mengen, Preise, Qualitäten, Logistik etc.) Teilbereich: Produktgruppe Rindfleisch

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    Die Studie zur Ermittlung von derzeitigen und absehbaren Vermarktungsproblemen im Markt für ökologisch erzeugtes Rindfleisch wurde mit der Forschungsmethode einer „mehrstufigen Befragung nach dem Delphi-Prinzip“ bearbeitet. Den Befragungen war eine umfassende Analyse der Veröffentlichungen über den Markt für ökologisch erzeugtes Rindfleisch vorausgegangen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Branche sich in einem strukturellen Engpass befindet. Das individualistische Agieren zahlreicher kleiner Akteure stößt im größer werdenden Markt und angesichts zunehmender Komplexität an Grenzen. Es gibt Ansätze von verstärkter Kooperation, die auch mit Erfolg am Markt belohnt werden. Die Darstellung der Probleme im Ergebnisteil hat gezeigt, dass viele Probleme wie uneinheitliche Verbraucheransprache und fehlende Qualifikationen durch die Struktur des Ökomarktes allgemein entstanden sind. Andere Probleme wie Marktrisiken und Richtlinien liegen außerhalb des Einflussbereichs der Marktteilnehmer. Als ein zentrales Ergebnis, das sich wie ein roter Faden durch die Studie zieht, ist der Mangel an Kommunikation innerhalb der Branche und damit verbunden eine genereller Informationsmangel. Die vorgeschlagene Lösung, die als Schlüssel für einige angesprochene Schwierigkeiten gelten kann, ist der horizontale und vertikale Zusammenschluss von Partnern mit ähnlichen Interessen. Ein weiteres zentrales Problem könnte mit dem Begriff „Rechtsunsicherheit“ umrissen werden. Die Marktteilnehmer fühlen sich angesichts der Mängel der so genannten „EU-Öko-Verordnung“ (abweichende Produktions- und Kontrollstandards innerhalb benachbarter Märkte) stark verunsichert. Die Schwächen des bestehenden Kontrollsystems, das als zu schwerfällig, als zu ineffizient, als zu uneinheitlich innerhalb Europas aber auch innerhalb Deutschlands betrachtet wird, verstärken diese Unsicherheit

    Nanoscopy of bacterial cells immobilized by holographic optical tweezers

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    Diekmann R, Wolfson D, Spahn C, Heilemann M, SchĂĽttpelz M, Huser T. Nanoscopy of bacterial cells immobilized by holographic optical tweezers. Nature Communications. 2016;7(1): 13711

    Human-centered visualization technologies for patient monitoring are the future: a narrative review

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    Medical technology innovation has improved patient monitoring in perioperative and intensive care medicine and continuous improvement in the technology is now a central focus in this field. Because data density increases with the number of parameters captured by patient-monitoring devices, its interpretation has become more challenging. Therefore, it is necessary to support clinicians in managing information overload while improving their awareness and understanding about the patient’s health status. Patient monitoring has almost exclusively operated on the single-sensor–single-indicator principle—a technology-centered way of presenting data in which specific parameters are measured and displayed individually as separate numbers and waves. An alternative is user-centered medical visualization technology, which integrates multiple pieces of information (e.g., vital signs), derived from multiple sensors into a single indicator—an avatar-based visualization—that is a meaningful representation of the real-world situation. Data are presented as changing shapes, colors, and animation frequencies, which can be perceived, integrated, and interpreted much more efficiently than other formats (e.g., numbers). The beneficial effects of these technologies have been confirmed in computer-based simulation studies; visualization technologies improved clinicians’ situation awareness by helping them effectively perceive and verbalize the underlying medical issue, while improving diagnostic confidence and reducing workload. This review presents an overview of the scientific results and the evidence for the validity of these technologies

    Environmental sustainability from anesthesia providers’ perspective: a qualitative study

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    Background The world faces a significant global health threat – climate change, which makes creating more environmentally sustainable healthcare systems necessary. As a resource-intensive specialty, anesthesiology contributes to a substantial fraction of healthcare’s environmental impact. This alarming situation invites us to reconsider the ecological health determinants and calls us to action. Methods We conducted a single-center qualitative study involving an online survey to explore the environmental sustainability from anesthesia providers’ perspectives in a center implementing internal environmentally-sustainable anesthesia guidelines. We asked care providers how they perceive the importance of environmental issues in their work; the adverse effects they see on ecological sustainability in anesthesia practice; what measures they take to make anesthesia more environmentally friendly; what barriers they face in trying to do so; and why they are unable to adopt ecologically friendly practices in some instances. Using a thematic analysis approach, we identified dominating themes in participants’ responses. Results A total of 62 anesthesia providers completed the online survey. 89% of the participants stated that environmental sustainability is essential in their work, and 95% reported that they implement measures to make their practice greener. A conscious choice of anesthetics was identified as the most common step the respondents take to reduce the environmental impact of anesthesia. Waste production and improper waste management was the most frequently mentioned anesthesia-associated threat to the environment. Lacking knowledge/teaching in sustainability themes was recognized as a crucial barrier to achieving ecology goals. Conclusions Sustainable anesthesia initiatives have the potential to both encourage engagement among anesthesia providers and raise awareness of this global issue. These findings inspire opportunities for action in sustainable anesthesia and broaden the capacity to decrease the climate impact of health care

    User Perceptions of Different Vital Signs Monitor Modalities During High-Fidelity Simulation: Semiquantitative Analysis

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    Background: Patient safety during anesthesia is crucially dependent on the monitoring of vital signs. However, the values obtained must also be perceived and correctly classified by the attending care providers. To facilitate these processes, we developed Visual-Patient-avatar, an animated virtual model of the monitored patient, which innovatively presents numerical and waveform data following user-centered design principles. After a high-fidelity simulation study, we analyzed the participants' perceptions of 3 different monitor modalities, including this newly introduced technique. Objective: The aim of this study was to collect and evaluate participants' opinions and experiences regarding 3 different monitor modalities, which are Visual-Patient-avatar, Split Screen (avatar and Conventional monitor alongside each other), and Conventional monitor after using them during simulated critical anesthetic events. Methods: This study was a researcher-initiated, single-center, semiquantitative study. We asked 92 care providers right after finishing 3 simulated emergency scenarios about their positive and negative opinions concerning the different monitor modalities. We processed the field notes obtained and derived the main categories and corresponding subthemes following qualitative research methods. Results: We gained a total of 307 statements. Through a context-based analysis, we identified the 3 main categories of "Visual-Patient-avatar," "Split Screen," and "Conventional monitor" and divided them into 11 positive and negative subthemes. We achieved substantial interrater reliability in assigning the statements to 1 of the topics. Most of the statements concerned the design and usability features of the avatar or the Split Screen mode. Conclusions: This study semiquantitatively reviewed the clinical applicability of the Visual-Patient-avatar technique in a high-fidelity simulation study and revealed the strengths and limitations of the avatar only and Split Screen modality. In addition to valuable suggestions for improving the design, the requirement for training prior to clinical implementation was emphasized. The responses to the Split Screen suggest that this symbiotic modality generates better situation awareness in combination with numerical data and accurate curves. As a subsequent development step, a real-life introduction study is planned, where we will test the avatar in Split Screen mode under actual clinical conditions. Keywords: avatar; patient monitoring; semiquantitative research; simulation study; situation awareness; user-centered design; visual-patient-avata

    Improving Visual-Patient-Avatar Design Prior to Its Clinical Release: A Mixed Qualitative and Quantitative Study

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    Visual-Patient-avatar, an avatar-based visualisation of patient monitoring, is a newly developed technology aiming to promote situation awareness through user-centred design. Before the technology’s introduction into clinical practice, the initial design used to validate the concept had to undergo thorough examination and adjustments where necessary. This mixed qualitative and quantitative study, consisting of three different study parts, aimed to create a design with high user acceptance regarding perceived professionalism and potential for identification while maintaining its original functionality. The first qualitative part was based on structured interviews and explored anaesthesia personnel’s first impressions regarding the original design. Recurrent topics were identified using inductive coding, participants’ interpretations of the vital sign visualisations analysed and design modifications derived. The second study part consisted of a redesign process, in which the visualisations were adapted according to the results of the first part. In a third, quantitative study part, participants rated Likert scales about Visual-Patient-avatar’s appearance and interpreted displayed vital signs in a computer-based survey. The first, qualitative study part included 51 structured interviews. Twenty-eight of 51 (55%) participants mentioned the appearance of Visual-Patient-avatar. In 23 of 51 (45%) interviews, 26 statements about the general impression were identified with a balanced count of positive (14 of 26) and negative (12 of 26) comments. The analysis of vital sign visualisations showed deficits in several vital sign visualisations, especially central venous pressure. These findings were incorporated into part two, the redesign of Visual-Patient-avatar. In the subsequent quantitative analysis of study for part three, 20 of 30 (67%) new participants agreed that the avatar looks professional enough for medical use. Finally, the participants identified 73% (435 of 600 cases) of all vital sign visualisations intuitively correctly without prior instruction. This study succeeded in improving the original design with good user acceptance and a reasonable degree of intuitiveness of the new, revised design. Furthermore, the study identified aspects relevant for the release of Visual-Patient-avatar, such as the requirement for providing at least some training, despite the design’s intuitiveness. The results of this study will guide further research and improvement of the technology. The study provides a link between Visual-Patient-avatar as a scientific concept and as an actual product from a cognitive engineering point of view, and may serve as an example of methods to study the designs of technologies in similar contexts

    Faster Time to Treatment Decision of Viscoelastic Coagulation Test Results through Improved Perception with the Animated Visual Clot: A Multicenter Comparative Eye-Tracking Study

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    As the interpretation of viscoelastic coagulation test results remains challenging, we created Visual Clot, an animated blood clot aiming to facilitate raw rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) parameters. This study investigated anesthesia personnel's cognitive processing in managing simulated bleeding scenarios using eye-tracking technology. This multicenter, international, computer-based study across five large, central European hospitals included 35 participants with minimal to no prior experience interpreting viscoelastic test results. Using eye-tracking technology and an iPad tagged with quick response codes, we defined the time to treatment decision and the time on screen surface in seconds of correctly solved scenarios as our outcomes. The median time to treatment decision was 52 s for Visual Clot and 205 s for ROTEM (p < 0.0001). The probability of solving the scenario correctly was more than 8 times higher when using Visual Clot than when using ROTEM (Hazard ratio [HR] 8.54, 95% CI from 6.5 to 11.21; p < 0.0001). Out of 194 correctly answered scenarios of participants with the eye-tracker, 154 (79.4%) were solved with Visual Clot and 40 (20.6%) with ROTEM. Participants spent on average 30 s less looking at the screen surface with Visual Clot compared to ROTEM (Coefficient -30.74 s, 95% CI from -39.27 to -22.27; p < 0.0001). For a comparison of the two modalities in terms of information transfer, we calculated the percentage of time on the screen surface of the overall time to treatment decision, which with Visual Clot was 14 percentage points shorter than with ROTEM (Coefficient -14.55, 95% CI from -20.05 to -9.12; p < 0.0001). Visual Clot seems to improve perception and detection of coagulopathies and leads to earlier initiation of the appropriate treatment. In a high-pressure working environment such as the operating and the resuscitation room, correct and timely decisions regarding bleeding management may have a relevant impact on patients' outcomes. Keywords: Visual Clot; avatar; blood coagulation; eye-tracking; point-of-care; rotational thromboelastometry; viscoelastic test; visual perception
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