1,958 research outputs found

    Efficient end-to-end learning for quantizable representations

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    Embedding representation learning via neural networks is at the core foundation of modern similarity based search. While much effort has been put in developing algorithms for learning binary hamming code representations for search efficiency, this still requires a linear scan of the entire dataset per each query and trades off the search accuracy through binarization. To this end, we consider the problem of directly learning a quantizable embedding representation and the sparse binary hash code end-to-end which can be used to construct an efficient hash table not only providing significant search reduction in the number of data but also achieving the state of the art search accuracy outperforming previous state of the art deep metric learning methods. We also show that finding the optimal sparse binary hash code in a mini-batch can be computed exactly in polynomial time by solving a minimum cost flow problem. Our results on Cifar-100 and on ImageNet datasets show the state of the art search accuracy in precision@k and NMI metrics while providing up to 98X and 478X search speedup respectively over exhaustive linear search. The source code is available at https://github.com/maestrojeong/Deep-Hash-Table-ICML18Comment: Accepted and to appear at ICML 2018. Camera ready versio

    Parsimonious Black-Box Adversarial Attacks via Efficient Combinatorial Optimization

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    Solving for adversarial examples with projected gradient descent has been demonstrated to be highly effective in fooling the neural network based classifiers. However, in the black-box setting, the attacker is limited only to the query access to the network and solving for a successful adversarial example becomes much more difficult. To this end, recent methods aim at estimating the true gradient signal based on the input queries but at the cost of excessive queries. We propose an efficient discrete surrogate to the optimization problem which does not require estimating the gradient and consequently becomes free of the first order update hyperparameters to tune. Our experiments on Cifar-10 and ImageNet show the state of the art black-box attack performance with significant reduction in the required queries compared to a number of recently proposed methods. The source code is available at https://github.com/snu-mllab/parsimonious-blackbox-attack.Comment: Accepted and to appear at ICML 201

    Deep Metric Learning via Facility Location

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    Learning the representation and the similarity metric in an end-to-end fashion with deep networks have demonstrated outstanding results for clustering and retrieval. However, these recent approaches still suffer from the performance degradation stemming from the local metric training procedure which is unaware of the global structure of the embedding space. We propose a global metric learning scheme for optimizing the deep metric embedding with the learnable clustering function and the clustering metric (NMI) in a novel structured prediction framework. Our experiments on CUB200-2011, Cars196, and Stanford online products datasets show state of the art performance both on the clustering and retrieval tasks measured in the NMI and Recall@K evaluation metrics.Comment: Submission accepted at CVPR 201

    Deep Metric Learning via Lifted Structured Feature Embedding

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    Learning the distance metric between pairs of examples is of great importance for learning and visual recognition. With the remarkable success from the state of the art convolutional neural networks, recent works have shown promising results on discriminatively training the networks to learn semantic feature embeddings where similar examples are mapped close to each other and dissimilar examples are mapped farther apart. In this paper, we describe an algorithm for taking full advantage of the training batches in the neural network training by lifting the vector of pairwise distances within the batch to the matrix of pairwise distances. This step enables the algorithm to learn the state of the art feature embedding by optimizing a novel structured prediction objective on the lifted problem. Additionally, we collected Online Products dataset: 120k images of 23k classes of online products for metric learning. Our experiments on the CUB-200-2011, CARS196, and Online Products datasets demonstrate significant improvement over existing deep feature embedding methods on all experimented embedding sizes with the GoogLeNet network.Comment: 11 page

    Neural Relation Graph: A Unified Framework for Identifying Label Noise and Outlier Data

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    Diagnosing and cleaning data is a crucial step for building robust machine learning systems. However, identifying problems within large-scale datasets with real-world distributions is challenging due to the presence of complex issues such as label errors, under-representation, and outliers. In this paper, we propose a unified approach for identifying the problematic data by utilizing a largely ignored source of information: a relational structure of data in the feature-embedded space. To this end, we present scalable and effective algorithms for detecting label errors and outlier data based on the relational graph structure of data. We further introduce a visualization tool that provides contextual information of a data point in the feature-embedded space, serving as an effective tool for interactively diagnosing data. We evaluate the label error and outlier/out-of-distribution (OOD) detection performances of our approach on the large-scale image, speech, and language domain tasks, including ImageNet, ESC-50, and MNLI. Our approach achieves state-of-the-art detection performance on all tasks considered and demonstrates its effectiveness in debugging large-scale real-world datasets across various domains.Comment: preprin

    EMI: Exploration with Mutual Information

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    Reinforcement learning algorithms struggle when the reward signal is very sparse. In these cases, naive random exploration methods essentially rely on a random walk to stumble onto a rewarding state. Recent works utilize intrinsic motivation to guide the exploration via generative models, predictive forward models, or discriminative modeling of novelty. We propose EMI, which is an exploration method that constructs embedding representation of states and actions that does not rely on generative decoding of the full observation but extracts predictive signals that can be used to guide exploration based on forward prediction in the representation space. Our experiments show competitive results on challenging locomotion tasks with continuous control and on image-based exploration tasks with discrete actions on Atari. The source code is available at https://github.com/snu-mllab/EMI .Comment: Accepted and to appear at ICML 201

    A Suspended Nanogap Formed by Field-Induced Atomically Sharp Tips

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    A sub-nanometer scale suspended gap (nanogap) defined by electric field-induced atomically sharp metallic tips is presented. A strong local electric field (\u3e109 V=m) across micro/nanomachined tips facing each other causes the metal ion migration in the form of dendrite-like growth at the cathode. The nanogap is fully isolated from the substrate eliminating growth mechanisms that involve substrate interactions. The proposed mechanism of ion transportation is verified using real-time imaging of the metal ion transportation using an in situ biasing in transmission electron microscope (TEM). The configuration of the micro/nanomachined suspended tips allows nanostructure growth of a wide variety of materials including metals, metal-oxides, and polymers. VC 2012 American Institute of Physics
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