1,478 research outputs found

    Characteristics of vertical velocities estimated from drop size and fall velocity spectra of a Parsivel disdrometer

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    Vertical air velocities were estimated from drop size and fall velocity spectra observed by Parsivel disdrometers during intensive field observations from 13 June to 3 August 2016 around Mt. Jiri (1915ma.s.l.) in the southern Korean Peninsula. Rainfall and wind velocity data measured by Parsivel disdrometers and ultrasonic anemometers, respectively, were analyzed for an orographic rainfall event associated with a stationary front over Mt. Jiri on 1 July 2016. In this study, a new technique was developed to estimate vertical air velocities from drop size and fall velocity spectra measured by the Parsivel disdrometers and investigate characteristics of up-/downdrafts and related microphysics on the windward and leeward sides of the mountain. To validate results from this technique, vertical air velocities between the Parsivel disdrometers and anemometers were compared at different locations and were shown in quite good agreement with each other. It was shown that upward motion was relatively more dominant on the windward side and even during periods of heavy rainfall. In contrast, downward motion was more dominant on the leeward side during nearly the same periods of heavy rainfall. Occurrences of upward and downward motion were digitized as percentage values as they are divided by a total count of occurrences during the entire period. On the windward (leeward) side, the percentages of upward (downward) motion were much larger than those of downward (upward) motion. The mean rainfall intensity on the leeward side was stronger than on the windward side, suggesting that most of the rainfall on the leeward side was relatively more affected by the downward motion. With the estimated vertical air velocities, histogram characteristics of rainfall parameters were also examined between the windward and leeward sides

    Carbon Emission Regulation, Green Boards, and Corporate Environmental Responsibility

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    In this study, we examine various effects of carbon emission regulation enacted in South Korea. We provide empirical evidence of regulated firms strategically hedging against potential risks by increasing the number of directors with environment-related backgrounds. We also find that this relationship is clearly evidenced when the firm is owned by a lower proportion of foreign investors. Further analysis shows that these directors successfully change their firms to become environmentally friendly. Overall, we conclude that the role of governments in promoting green finance is crucial. The findings of this study may be used as a guideline for decision makers and environmental policymakers to create systems and policies to increase the firm's awareness about the environment in relation to corporate environmental responsibility (CER) ratings of firms

    Measurement of Planetary Boundary Layer Winds with Scanning Doppler Lidar

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    The accurate measurement of wind profiles in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is important not only for numerical weather prediction, but also for air quality modeling. Two wind retrieval methods using scanning Doppler light detection and ranging (lidar) measurements were compared and validated with simultaneous radiosonde soundings. A comparison with 17 radiosonde sounding profiles showed that the sine-fitting method was able to retrieve a larger number of data points, but the singular value decomposition method showed significantly smaller bias (0.57 m s(-1)) and root-mean-square error (1.75 m s(-1)) with radiosonde soundings. Increasing the averaging time interval of radial velocity for obtaining velocity azimuth display scans to 15 min resulted in better agreement with radiosonde soundings due to the signal averaging effect on noise. Simultaneous measurements from collocated wind Doppler lidar and aerosol Mie-scattering lidar revealed the temporal evolution of PBL winds and the vertical distribution of aerosols within the PBL

    Sub-100-as timing jitter optical pulse trains from mode-locked Er-fiber lasers

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    We demonstrate sub-100-attosecond timing jitter optical pulse trains generated from free-running, 77.6-MHz repetition-rate, mode-locked Er-fiber lasers. At -0.002(\pm0.001) ps2 net cavity dispersion, the rms timing jitter is 70 as (224 as) integrated from 10 kHz (1 kHz) to 38.8 MHz offset frequency, when measured by a 24-as-resolution balanced optical cross-correlator. To our knowledge, this result corresponds to the lowest rms timing jitter measured from any mode-locked fiber lasers so far. The measured result also agrees fairly well with the Namiki-Haus analytic model of quantum-limited timing jitter in stretched-pulse fiber lasers.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures, to appear in Optics Letter

    Airborne Measurements of High Pollutant Concentration Events in the Free Troposphere over the West Coast of South Korea between 1997 and 2011

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    Aircrafts enable the direct measurement of chemical components in the free troposphere (FT). This study employed airborne measurements to examine the occurrences of high concentrations of SO2 and NOx in the FT over the coastal region west of the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea. The data from a long-term (1997-2011) airborne measurement campaign were used to determine the meteorological conditions favorable for carrying these pollutants into the Seoul area. The back trajectory analyses of 21 instances of high FT pollutant concentration events showed ascending patterns from the major pollutant sources, mainly the industrial complexes in eastern China, in 9 instances and passing patterns in 12 instances. In the ascending instances, developing low-pressure systems over the source regions provide favorable conditions to uplift air pollutants from the surface into the FT. In the passing instances, an anomalous low-pressure system near the surface prevented airflows from descending into the boundary layer and upper-level anticyclonic systems helped to keep the ascending airflows in the FT. This study proposes the basic mechanisms for predicting air quality in the Seoul area, considering that air pollutants in the FT often entrain into the boundary layer to increase local concentrationsopen0

    Role of S5b/PSMD5 in Proteasome Inhibition Caused by TNF-α/NFκB in Higher Eukaryotes

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    SummaryThe ubiquitin-proteasome system is essential for maintaining protein homeostasis. However, proteasome dysregulation in chronic diseases is poorly understood. Through genome-wide cell-based screening using 5,500 cDNAs, a signaling pathway leading to NFκB activation was selected as an inhibitor of 26S proteasome. TNF-α increased S5b (HGNC symbol PSMD5; hereafter S5b/PSMD5) expression via NFκB, and the surplus S5b/PSMD5 directly inhibited 26S proteasome assembly and activity. Downregulation of S5b/PSMD5 abolished TNF-α-induced proteasome inhibition. TNF-α enhanced the interaction of S5b/PSMD5 with S7/PSMC2 in nonproteasome complexes, and interference of this interaction rescued TNF-α-induced proteasome inhibition. Transgenic mice expressing S5b/PSMD5 exhibited a reduced life span and premature onset of aging-related phenotypes, including reduced proteasome activity in their tissues. Conversely, S5b/PSMD5 deficiency in Drosophila melanogaster ameliorated the tau rough eye phenotype, enhanced proteasome activity, and extended the life span of tau flies. These results reveal the critical role of S5b/PSMD5 in negative regulation of proteasome by TNF-α/NFκB and provide insights into proteasome inhibition in human disease

    Computationally efficient air quality forecasting tool: implementation of STOPS v1.5 model into CMAQ v5.0.2 for a prediction of Asian dust

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    This study suggests a new modeling framework using a hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian-based modeling tool (the Screening Trajectory Ozone Prediction System, STOPS) for a prediction of an Asian dust event in Korea. The new version of STOPS (v1.5) has been implemented into the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 5.0.2. The STOPS modeling system is a moving nest (Lagrangian approach) between the source and the receptor inside the host Eulerian CMAQ model. The proposed model generates simulation results that are relatively consistent with those of CMAQ but within a comparatively shorter computational time period. We find that standard CMAQ generally underestimates PM10 concentrations during the simulation period (February 2015) and fails to capture PM10 peaks during Asian dust events (22-24 February 2015). The underestimation in PM10 concentration is very likely due to missing dust emissions in CMAQ rather than incorrectly simulated meteorology, as the model meteorology agrees well with the observations. To improve the underestimated PM10 results from CMAQ, we used the STOPS model with constrained PM concentrations based on aerosol optical depth (AOD) data from the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), reflecting real-time initial and boundary conditions of dust particles near the Korean Peninsula. The simulated PM10 from the STOPS simulations were improved significantly and closely matched the surface observations. With additional verification of the capabilities of the methodology on emission estimations and more STOPS simulations for various time periods, the STOPS model could prove to be a useful tool not just for the predictions of Asian dust but also for other unexpected events such as wildfires and oil spillsopen0

    Effect of pre-diabetes on future risk of stroke: meta-analysis

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    Objectives To assess the association between pre-diabetes and risk of stroke, and to evaluate whether this relation varies by diagnostic criteria for pre-diabetes

    Possible link between Arctic Sea ice and January PM10 concentrations in South Korea

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    In this study, we investigated the possible teleconnection between PM10 concentrations in South Korea and Arctic Sea ice concentrations at inter-annual time scales using observed PM10 data from South Korea, NCEP R2 data, and NOAA Sea Ice Concentration (SIC) data from 2001 to 2018. From the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, we found that the first mode (TC1) was a large-scale mode for PM10 in South Korea and explained about 27.4% of the total variability. Interestingly, the TC1 is more dominantly influenced by the horizontal ventilation effect than the vertical atmospheric stability effect. The pollution potential index (PPI), which is defined by the weighted average of the two ventilation effects, is highly correlated with the TC1 of PM10 at a correlation coefficient of 0.75, indicating that the PPI is a good measure for PM10 in South Korea at inter-annual time scales. Regression maps show that the decrease of SIC over the Barents Sea is significantly correlated with weakening of high pressure over the Ural mountain range region, the anomalous high pressure at 500 hPa over the Korean peninsula, and the weakening of the Siberian High and Aleutian low. Moreover, these patterns are similar to the correlation pattern with the PPI, suggesting that the variability of SIC over the Barents Sea may play an important role in modulating the variability of PM10 in South Korea through teleconnection from the Barents Sea to the Korean peninsula via Eurasia

    Acidic pH shock induces the expressions of a wide range of stress-response genes

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Environmental signals usually enhance secondary metabolite production in <it>Streptomycetes </it>by initiating complex signal transduction system. It is known that different sigma factors respond to different types of stresses, respectively in <it>Streptomyces </it>strains, which have a number of unique signal transduction mechanisms depending on the types of environmental shock. In this study, we wanted to know how a pH shock would affect the expression of various sigma factors and shock-related proteins in <it>S. coelicolor </it>A3(2).</p> <p>Results</p> <p>According to the results of transcriptional and proteomic analyses, the major number of sigma factor genes were upregulated by an acidic pH shock. Well-studied sigma factor genes of <it>sigH </it>(heat shock), <it>sigR </it>(oxidative stress), <it>sigB </it>(osmotic shock), and <it>hrdD </it>that play a major role in the secondary metabolism, were all strongly upregulated by the pH shock. A number of heat shock proteins including the DnaK family and chaperones such as GroEL2 were also observed to be upregulated by the pH shock, while their repressor of <it>hspR </it>was strongly downregulated. Oxidative stress-related proteins such as thioredoxin, catalase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and osmotic shock-related protein such as vesicle synthases were also upregulated in overall.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>From these observations, an acidic pH shock was considered to be one of the strongest stresses to influence a wide range of sigma factors and shock-related proteins including general stress response proteins. The upregulation of the sigma factors and shock proteins already found to be related to actinorhodin biosynthesis was considered to have contributed to enhanced actinorhodin productivity by mediating the pH shock signal to regulators or biosynthesis genes for actinorhodin production.</p