23,722 research outputs found

    Ultrastructural alteration of mouse lung by prolonged exposure to mixtures of helium and oxygen

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    Observed changes consist mainly of blebbing of capillary endothelium and alveolar epithelium, which is quite possibly indicative of cellular edema; also, there can be observed highly-convoluted basement membrane, alveolar debris, and increased numbers of platelets

    Coherent pairing states for the Hubbard model

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    We consider the Hubbard model and its extensions on bipartite lattices. We define a dynamical group based on the η\eta-pairing operators introduced by C.N.Yang, and define coherent pairing states, which are combinations of eigenfunctions of η\eta-operators. These states permit exact calculations of numerous physical properties of the system, including energy, various fluctuations and correlation functions, including pairing ODLRO to all orders. This approach is complementary to BCS, in that these are superconducting coherent states associated with the exact model, although they are not eigenstates of the Hamiltonian.Comment: 5 pages, RevTe

    Gain control of saccadic eye movements is probabilistic

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    Saccades are rapid eye movements that orient the visual axis toward objects of interest to allow their processing by the central, highacuity retina. Our ability to collect visual information efficiently relies on saccadic accuracy, which is limited by a combination of uncertainty in the location of the target and motor noise. It has been observed that saccades have a systematic tendency to fall short of their intended targets, and it has been suggested that this bias originates from a cost function that overly penalizes hypermetric errors. Here we tested this hypothesis by systematically manipulating the positional uncertainty of saccadic targets. We found that increasing uncertainty produced not only a larger spread of the saccadic endpoints but also more hypometric errors and a systematic bias toward the average of target locations in a given block, revealing that prior knowledge was integrated into saccadic planning. Moreover, by examining how variability and bias co-varied across conditions, we estimated the asymmetry of the cost function and found that it was related to individual differences in the additional time needed to program secondary saccades for correcting hypermetric errors, relative to hypometric ones. Taken together, these findings reveal that the saccadic system uses a probabilistic-Bayesian control strategy to compensate for uncertainty in a statistically principled way and to minimize the expected cost of saccadic errors

    Criteria for reachability of quantum states

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    We address the question of which quantum states can be inter-converted under the action of a time-dependent Hamiltonian. In particular, we consider the problem applied to mixed states, and investigate the difference between pure and mixed-state controllability introduced in previous work. We provide a complete characterization of the eigenvalue spectrum for which the state is controllable under the action of the symplectic group. We also address the problem of which states can be prepared if the dynamical Lie group is not sufficiently large to allow the system to be controllable.Comment: 14 pages, IoP LaTeX, first author has moved to Cambridge university ([email protected]

    Error correcting method and apparatus Patent

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    Description of error correcting methods for use with digital data computers and apparatus for encoding and decoding digital dat

    High Redshift HCN Emission: Dense Star-Forming Molecular Gas in IRAS F10214+4724

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    Hydrogen cyanide emission in the J=1-0 transition has been detected at redshift z=2.2858 in IRAS F10214+4724 using the Green Bank Telescope . This is the second detection of HCN emission at high redshift. The large HCN line luminosity in F10214 is similar to that in the Cloverleaf (z=2.6) and the ultra-luminous infrared galaxies Mrk231 and Arp220. This is also true of the ratio of HCN to CO luminosities. The ratio of far-infrared luminosity to HCN luminosity, an indicator of the star formation rate per solar mass of dense gas, follows the correlation found for normal spirals and infrared luminous starburst galaxies. F10214 clearly contains a starburst that contributes, together with its embedded quasar, to its overall infrared luminosity. A new technique for removing spectral baselines in the search for weak, broad emission lines is presented.Comment: 9 pages, 2 figures; accepted ApJ(Letters

    The history of dipper functions

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    Dipper-shaped curves often accurately depict the relationship between a baseline, or “pedestal,” magnitude and a just noticeable difference in it. This tutorial traces the 45-year history of the dipper function in auditory and visual psychophysics, focusing on when they happen and why. Popular theories of both positive and negative masking (i.e., the “handle” and “dip,” respectively) are described. Sometimes, but not always, negative masking disappears with an appropriate redescription of stimulus magnitude
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