504 research outputs found

    Towards Exploration Tools for High Purity Quartz: An Example from the South Norwegian Evje-Iveland Pegmatite Belt

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    High Purity Quartz (HPQ; quartz containing less than 50 ppm trace elements) is of increasing economic significance due to its use in certain high-tech components (computer chip/semiconductor manufacture) and in green technologies (silicon wafer production). Current HPQ deposits (hydrothermal veins/leuco-granites/alaskites) are rare and volumetrically small. Unless significant new deposits are found, increasing demand will raise its prices, elevating the strategic nature of this limited commodity. The large volumes and simple mineralogy of pegmatites and the high chemical purity of their constituents make them an attractive target for HPQ. PhD studies are being carried out on quartz from the Evje-Iveland pegmatite field of the Bamble-Evje pegmatite cluster, southern Norway. The area was targeted due to its well constrained geological setting and previously identified potential for HPQ. The aim of the investigation is to develop exploration tools for HPQ by determining the genetic history of the pegmatites and mode of HPQ formation. The study is focussing on 7 pegmatites and their country rocks. Each shows typical pegmatite zonation, with quartz/feldspar intergrowths at the margins, a massive quartz core and a variety of accessory (including REE-bearing) phases. The proximal Hþvringsvatnet granite was previously suggested to have supplied late-stage, highly fractionated melts to form the pegmatites. However, from their trace element systematics (no relationship was observed between trace element content and degree of fractionation in each pegmatite body), and a difference in U/Pb age of approximately 70 Ma, the pegmatites cannot be related to the granites. From field evidence (corroborated by geochemical modelling) the pegmatites formed by ‘in situ’ anatexis of country rocks; some locally, some from distal sources. Some pegmatites contain brecciated feldspar and replacement quartz. From LA-ICP-MS analyses, hydrothermal quartz, compared with magmatic quartz, typically contains lower quantities of trace elements. Hydrothermal material shows relatively elevated levels of Al and Li, low Ge and a complete absence of Ti, indicating relatively low temperature hydrothermal formation. Different quartz domains (from SEM-CL imaging) show distinct ή18O values; late stage low trace element zones show values consistent with meteorically derived fluids. In situ LA-ICP-MS studies will provide further information about the characteristics of the fluids which have replaced/refined magmatic quartz to form HPQ. This beneficiation process is a potential mechanism for the generation of economically significant HPQ deposits.Camborne School of Mines (CSM)Norwegian Geological Survey (NGU)Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining (IOM3)Geological Society, LondonSociety of Economic Geologists (SEG

    The relationship between adiposity and stature in prepubertal children with celiac disease

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    Background and Aim: The pathogenesis of short stature in celiac disease (CD) is unknown. Obese children are generally taller than their non-obese peers; however, the role of adiposity on stature in CD is unclear. Our aim was to determine the association between adiposity and stature in CD. Subjects and methods: We compared the anthropometric characteristics of prepubertal children of ages 3-12 years, with biopsy-proven CD (n=40) and who were not on gluten-free diet, to same aged, prepubertal non-CD children (n=50). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using the formula weight/height2. Sex-adjusted midparental target height (MPTH) standard deviation score (SDS) was calculated using National Children Health Statistics data for 18-year-old adults. Data were expressed as mean±standard deviation. Results: CD subjects had significantly lower BMI SDS than controls (0.61±1.22 vs. 1.28±1.60, p=0.027) but were not significantly shorter than the controls (-0.05±1.21 vs. 0.21±1.71, p=0.41). When the patients were subdivided into the normal-weight and overweight/obese groups, the normal-weight CD patients were of similar height as the normal-weight controls (p=0.76) but were significantly shorter than both the overweight/obese controls (p=0.003). The MPTH SDS did not differ between the groups. Conclusions: Overweight/obese prepubertal children with CD were taller than both their normal-weight CD peers and the normal-weight controls, but were of similar height as the overweight/obese control subjects

    Examples of data assimilation in mesoscale models

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    The keynote address was the problem of physical initialization of mesoscale models. The classic purpose of physical or diabatic initialization is to reduce or eliminate the spin-up error caused by the lack, at the initial time, of the fully developed vertical circulations required to support regions of large rainfall rates. However, even if a model has no spin-up problem, imposition of observed moisture and heating rate information during assimilation can improve quantitative precipitation forecasts, especially early in the forecast. The two key issues in physical initialization are the choice of assimilating technique and sources of hydrologic/hydrometeor data. Another example of data assimilation in mesoscale models was presented in a series of meso-beta scale model experiments with and 11 km version of the MASS model designed to investigate the sensitivity of convective initiation forced by thermally direct circulations resulting from differential surface heating to four dimensional assimilation of surface and radar data. The results of these simulations underscore the need to accurately initialize and simulate grid and sub-grid scale clouds in meso- beta scale models. The status of the application of the CSU-RAMS mesoscale model by the NOAA Forecast Systems Lab for producing real-time forecasts with 10-60 km mesh resolutions over (4000 km)(exp 2) domains for use by the aviation community was reported. Either MAPS or LAPS model data are used to initialize the RAMS model on a 12-h cycle. The use of MAPS (Mesoscale Analysis and Prediction System) model was discussed. Also discussed was the mesobeta-scale data assimilation using a triply-nested nonhydrostatic version of the MM5 model

    Lineage-specific T-cell responses to cancer mucosa antigen oppose systemic metastases without mucosal inflammatory disease.

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    Cancer mucosa antigens are emerging as a new category of self-antigens expressed normally in immunologically privileged mucosal compartments and universally by their derivative tumors. These antigens leverage the established immunologic partitioning of systemic and mucosal compartments, limiting tolerance opposing systemic antitumor efficacy. An unresolved issue surrounding self-antigens as immunotherapeutic targets is autoimmunity following systemic immunization. In the context of cancer mucosa antigens, immune effectors to self-antigens risk amplifying mucosal inflammatory disease promoting carcinogenesis. Here, we examined the relationship between immunotherapy for systemic colon cancer metastases targeting the intestinal cancer mucosa antigen guanylyl cyclase C (GCC) and its effect on inflammatory bowel disease and carcinogenesis in mice. Immunization with GCC-expressing viral vectors opposed nascent tumor growth in mouse models of pulmonary metastasis, reflecting systemic lineage-specific tolerance characterized by CD8(+), but not CD4(+), T-cell or antibody responses. Responses protecting against systemic metastases spared intestinal epithelium from autoimmunity, and systemic GCC immunity did not amplify chemically induced inflammatory bowel disease. Moreover, GCC immunization failed to promote intestinal carcinogenesis induced by germ-line mutations or chronic inflammation. The established role of CD8(+) T cells in antitumor efficacy, but CD4(+) T cells in autoimmunity, suggests that lineage-specific responses to GCC are particularly advantageous to protect against systemic metastases without mucosal inflammation. These observations support the utility of GCC-targeted immunotherapy in patients at risk for systemic metastases, including those with inflammatory bowel disease, hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes, and sporadic colorectal cancer

    General framework for fluctuating dynamic density functional theory

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    We introduce a versatile bottom-up derivation of a formal theoretical framework to describe (passive) soft-matter systems out of equilibrium subject to fluctuations. We provide a unique connection between the constituent-particle dynamics of real systems and the time evolution equation of their measurable (coarse-grained) quantities, such as local density and velocity. The starting point is the full Hamiltonian description of a system of colloidal particles immersed in a fluid of identical bath particles. Then, we average out the bath via Zwanzig's projection-operator techniques and obtain the stochastic Langevin equations governing the colloidal-particle dynamics. Introducing the appropriate definition of the local number and momentum density fields yields a generalisation of the Dean-Kawasaki (DK) model, which resembles the stochastic Navier-Stokes (NS) description of a fluid. Nevertheless, the DK equation still contains all the microscopic information and, for that reason, does not represent the dynamical law of observable quantities. We address this controversial feature of the DK description by carrying out a nonequilibrium ensemble average. Adopting a natural decomposition into local-equilibrium and nonequilibrium contribution, where the former is related to a generalised version of the canonical distribution, we finally obtain the fluctuating-hydrodynamic equation governing the time-evolution of the mesoscopic density and momentum fields. Along the way, we outline the connection between the ad-hoc energy functional introduced in previous DK derivations and the free-energy functional from classical density-functional theory (DFT). The resultant equation has the structure of a dynamical DFT (DDFT) with an additional fluctuating force coming from the random interactions with the bath. We show that our fluctuating DDFT formalism corresponds to a particular version of the fluctuating NS equations, originally derived by Landau and Lifshitz. Our framework thus provides the formal apparatus for ab-initio derivations of fluctuating DDFT equations capable of describing the dynamics of soft-matter systems in and out of equilibrium. We believe that the derivation offered here represents the current state of the art in the field

    Measurements of branching fraction ratios and CP-asymmetries in suppressed B^- -> D(-> K^+ pi^-)K^- and B^- -> D(-> K^+ pi^-)pi^- decays

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    We report the first reconstruction in hadron collisions of the suppressed decays B^- -> D(-> K^+ pi^-)K^- and B^- -> D(-> K^+ pi^-)pi^-, sensitive to the CKM phase gamma, using data from 7 fb^-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the CDF II detector at the Tevatron collider. We reconstruct a signal for the B^- -> D(-> K^+ pi^-)K^- suppressed mode with a significance of 3.2 standard deviations, and measure the ratios of the suppressed to favored branching fractions R(K) = [22.0 \pm 8.6(stat)\pm 2.6(syst)]\times 10^-3, R^+(K) = [42.6\pm 13.7(stat)\pm 2.8(syst)]\times 10^-3, R^-(K)= [3.8\pm 10.3(stat)\pm 2.7(syst]\times 10^-3, as well as the direct CP-violating asymmetry A(K) = -0.82\pm 0.44(stat)\pm 0.09(syst) of this mode. Corresponding quantities for B^- -> D(-> K^+ pi^-)pi^- decay are also reported.Comment: 8 pages, 1 figure, accepted by Phys.Rev.D Rapid Communications for Publicatio

    Direct Regulation of Striated Muscle Myosins by Nitric Oxide and Endogenous Nitrosothiols

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    , both through activation of guanylyl cyclase and through modification of cysteines in proteins to yield S-nitrosothiols. While NO affects the contractile apparatus directly, the identities of the target myofibrillar proteins remain unknown. Here we report that nitrogen oxides directly regulate striated muscle myosins..These data show that nitrosylation signaling acts as a molecular “gear shift” for myosin—an altogether novel mechanism by which striated muscle and cellular biomechanics may be regulated

    A systematic map of studies testing the relationship between temperature and animal reproduction

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    Funding: This work was funded by the European Society for Evolution (which funds a Special Topic Network on Evolutionary Ecology of Thermal Fertility Limits to CF, AB, RRS and TARP), the Natural Environment Research Council (NE/P002692/1 to TARP, AB and RRS, NE/X011550/1 to LRD and TARP), the Biotechnology and \Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/W016753/1 to AB, TARP and RRS) and a Heisenberg fellowship from the German Research Foundation (FR 2973/11-1 to CF).1. Exposure to extreme temperatures can negatively affect animal reproduction, by disrupting the ability of individuals to produce any offspring (fertility), or the number of offspring produced by fertile individuals (fecundity). This has important ecological consequences, because reproduction is the ultimate measure of population fitness: a reduction in reproductive output lowers the population growth rate and increases the extinction risk. Despite this importance, there have been no large‐scale summaries of the evidence for effect of temperature on reproduction. 2. We provide a systematic map of studies testing the relationship between temperature and animal reproduction. We systematically searched for published studies that statistically test for a direct link between temperature and animal reproduction, in terms of fertility, fecundity or indirect measures of reproductive potential (gamete and gonad traits). 3. Overall, we collated a large and rich evidence base, with 1654 papers that met our inclusion criteria, encompassing 1191 species. 4. The map revealed several important research gaps. Insects made up almost half of the dataset, but reptiles and amphibians were uncommon, as were non‐arthropod invertebrates. Fecundity was the most common reproductive trait examined, and relatively few studies measured fertility. It was uncommon for experimental studies to test exposure of different life stages, exposure to short‐term heat or cold shock, exposure to temperature fluctuations, or to independently assess male and female effects. Studies were most often published in journals focusing on entomology and pest control, ecology and evolution, aquaculture and fisheries science, and marine biology. Finally, while individuals were sampled from every continent, there was a strong sampling bias towards mid‐latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, such that the tropics and polar regions are less well sampled. 5. This map reveals a rich literature of studies testing the relationship between temperature and animal reproduction, but also uncovers substantial missing treatment of taxa, traits, and thermal regimes. This database will provide a valuable resource for future quantitative meta‐analyses, and direct future studies aiming to fill identified gaps.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton–proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript −1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

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