23 research outputs found

    Analogies between elastic and capillary interfaces

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    In this paper we exploit some analogies between flows near capillary interfaces and near elastic interfaces. We first consider the elastohydrodynamics of a ball bearing and the motion of a gas bubble inside a thin channel. It is shown that there is a strong analogy between these two lubrication problems, and the respective scaling laws are derived side by side. Subsequently, the paper focuses on the limit where the involved elastic interfaces become extremely soft. It is shown that soft gels and elastomers, like liquids, can be shaped by their surface tension. We highlight some recent advances on this class of elastocapillary phenomena

    Maximum speed of dewetting on a fiber

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    A solid object can be coated by a nonwetting liquid since a receding contact line cannot exceed a critical speed. We theoretically investigate this forced wetting transition for axisymmetric menisci on fibers of varying radii. First, we use a matched asymptotic expansion and derive the maximum speed of dewetting. For all radii we find the maximum speed occurs at vanishing apparent contact angle. To further investigate the transition we numerically determine the bifurcation diagram for steady menisci. It is found that the meniscus profiles on thick fibers are smooth, even when there is a film deposited between the bath and the contact line, while profiles on thin fibers exhibit strong oscillations. We discuss how this could lead to different experimental scenarios of film deposition

    Moving Contact Lines: Scales, Regimes, and Dynamical Transitions

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    The speed at which a liquid can move over a solid surface is strongly limited when a three-phase contact line is present, separating wet from dry regions. When enforcing large contact line speeds, this leads to the entrainment of drops, films, or air bubbles. In this review, we discuss experimental and theoretical progress revealing the physical mechanisms behind these dynamical wetting transitions. In this context, we discuss microscopic processes that have been proposed to resolve the moving–contact line paradox and identify the different dynamical regimes of contact line motio

    Systematisk variation pa det danske aktiemarked: En empirisk test af januar-effekt 1950-1988

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    In modern drop-on-demand inkjet printing, the jetted droplets contain a mixture of solvents, pigments and surfactants. In order to accurately control the droplet formation process, its in-flight dynamics, and deposition characteristics upon impact at the underlying substrate, it is key to quantify the instantaneous liquid properties of the droplets during the entire inkjet-printing process. An analysis of shape oscillation dynamics is known to give direct information of the local liquid properties of millimeter-sized droplets and bubbles. Here, we apply this technique to measure the surface tension and viscosity of micrometer-sized inkjet droplets in flight by recording the droplet shape oscillations microseconds after pinch-off from the nozzle. From the damped oscillation amplitude and frequency we deduce the viscosity and surface tension, respectively. With this ultrafast imaging method, we study the role of surfactants in freshly made inkjet droplets in flight and compare to complementary techniques for dynamic surface tension measurements

    Pointy ice-drops: How water freezes into a singular shape

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    A water drop that is gently deposited on a very cold surface freezes into a pointy ice-drop with a very sharp tip. The formation of this singular shape originates from the reduction of mass density during the freezing process and can be explained using a simplified model for which the universal structure of the singularity is revealed in full detail. The combination of a relatively simple, static experiment, and the accessible asymptotic analysis makes this system an ideal introduction to the topic of singularitie

    Physics of the granite sphere fountain

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    A striking example of levitation is encountered in the “kugel fountain” where a granite sphere, sometimes weighing over a ton, is kept aloft by a thin film of flowing water. In this paper, we explain the working principle behind this levitation. We show that the fountain can be viewed as a giant ball bearing and thus forms a prime example of lubrication theory. It is demonstrated how the viscosity and flow rate of the fluid determine (i) the remarkably small thickness of the film supporting the sphere and (ii) the surprisingly long time it takes for rotations to damp out. The theoretical results compare well with measurements on a fountain holding a granite sphere of one meter in diameter. We close by discussing several related cases of levitation by lubrication

    Stokes flow in a drop evaporating from a liquid subphase

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    The evaporation of a drop from a liquid subphase is investigated. The two liquids are immiscible, and the contact angles between them are given by the Neumann construction. The evaporation of the drop gives rise to flows in both liquids, which are coupled by the continuity of velocity and shear-stress conditions. We derive self-similar solutions to the velocity fields in both liquids close to the three-phase contact line, where the drop geometry can be approximated by a wedge. We focus on the case where Marangoni stresses are negligible, for which the flow field consists of three contributions: flow driven by the evaporative flux from the drop surface, flow induced by the receding motion of the contact line, and an eigenmode flow that is due to the stirring of the fluid in the corner by the large-scale flow in the drop. The eigenmode flow is asymptotically subdominant for all contact angles. The moving contact-line flow dominates when the angle between the liquid drop and the horizontal surface of the liquid subphase is smaller than 90°, while the evaporative-flux driven flow dominates for larger angles. A parametric study is performed to show how the velocity fields in the two liquids depend on the contact angles between the liquids and their viscosity rati

    Marangoni spreading due to a localized alcohol supply on a thin water

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    Bringing two miscible fluids into contact naturally generates strong gradients in surface tension. Here, we investigate such a Marangoni-driven flow by continuously supplying isopropyl alcohol (IPA) on a film of water, using micron-sized droplets of IPA-water mixtures. These droplets create a localized depression in surface tension that leads to the opening of a circular, thin region in the water film. At the edge of the thin region, there is a growing rim that collects the water of the film, reminiscent of Marangoni spreading due to locally deposited surfactants. In contrast to the surfactant case, the driving by IPA-water drops gives rise to a dynamics of the thin zone that is independent of the initial layer thickness. The radius grows as r ∟ t 1/2, which can be explained from a balance between Marangoni and viscous stresses. We derive a scaling law that accurately predicts the influence of the IPA flux as well as the thickness of the thin film at the interior of the spreading front

    Effect of Disjoining Pressure on Surface Nanobubbles

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    In gas-oversaturated solutions, stable surface nanobubbles can exist thanks to a balance between the Laplace pressure and the gas overpressure, provided the contact line of the bubble is pinned. In this article, we analyze how the disjoining pressure originating from the van der Waals interactions of the liquid and the gas with the surface affects the properties of the surface nanobubbles. From a functional minimization of the Gibbs free energy in the sharp-interface approximation, we find the bubble shape that takes into account the attracting van der Waals potential and gas compressibility effects. Although the bubble shape slightly deviates from the classical one (defined by the Young contact angle), it preserves a nearly spherical-cap shape. We also find that the disjoining pressure restricts the aspect ratio (size/height) of the bubble and derive the maximal possible aspect ratio, which is expressed via the Young angle
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