951 research outputs found

    Internal and External Validity of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo in Young Adolescents with ADHD

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    Adolescents with Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) show symptoms of slowness, mental confusion, excessive daydreaming, low motivation, and drowsiness/sleepiness. Although many symptoms of SCT reflect internalizing states, no study has evaluated the utility of self-report of SCT in an ADHD sample. Further, it remains unclear whether SCT is best conceptualized as a unidimensional or multidimensional construct. In a sample of 262 adolescents comprehensively diagnosed with ADHD, the present study evaluated the dimensionality of a SCT scale and compared CFA and bifactor model fits for parent- and self-report versions. Analyses revealed the three-factor bifactor model to be the best fitting model. In addition, SCT factors predicted social and academic impairment and internalizing symptoms. Therefore, SCT as a multidimensional construct appears to have clinical utility in predicting impairment. Also, multiple reporters should be used, as they predicted different areas of functioning and were not invariant, suggesting that each rater adds unique information

    The Best Things in Life Are - 2017 Haiku Winner

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    Do sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms improve with school-based ADHD interventions? Outcomes and predictors of change.

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    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is a construct that includes symptoms of slowness, mental confusion, excessive daydreaming, low motivation, and drowsiness/sleepiness. SCT is often co-morbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and SCT symptoms are associated with significant academic and interpersonal impairment above and beyond the influence of ADHD symptoms. Despite the overlap between ADHD and SCT and associated impairments, no studies have evaluated how evidence-based psychosocial interventions for adolescents with ADHD impact symptoms of SCT. This study examined whether SCT symptoms improved in a sample of 274 young adolescents with ADHD who received either an organizational skills or a homework completion intervention. SCT intervention response was evaluated broadly in all participants, and specifically, for participants in the clinical range for SCT symptom severity at baseline. Change in ADHD symptoms of inattention, executive functioning, and motivation was examined as potential predictors of improvement in SCT. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that SCT symptoms decreased at the same rate for adolescents in both the organizational skills and homework completion interventions when compared to the waitlist group (d = .410). For adolescents with parent-reported clinical levels of SCT, the decrease in symptoms was more pronounced (d = .517), with the interventions decreasing the total score of SCT by 2.91 (one symptom). Additionally, in the high SCT group, behavior regulation executive functioning, metacognitive executive functioning, and inattention predicted change. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed, including development of interventions for adolescents with high levels of SCT

    Has climate change taken prominence over biodiversity conservation?

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    The growing prominence of climate change has led to concerns that other important environmental issues, such as biodiversity loss, are being overshadowed. We investigate this assertion by examining trends in biodiversity and climate change coverage within the scientific and newspaper press, as well as the relative distribution of funding through the World Bank and the National Science Foundation, since the late 1980s. Our indicators substantiate some of these fears. To prevent biodiversity from becoming a declining priority, conservationists need to analyze the discourse surrounding climate change and determine how it has become the predominant environmental topic. In addition, given the common drivers of biodiversity loss and climate change, we argue that win–win solutions must be sought wherever possible. Conservationists need to be proactive and take this opportunity to use the mounting interest in climate change as a flagship to leverage more support and action to prevent further biodiversity loss

    Psychoeducational interventions in adolescent depression: A systematic review

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    Background: Adolescent depression is common and leads to distress and impairment for individuals/families. Treatment/prevention guidelines stress the need for good information and evidence-based psychosocial interventions. There has been growing interest in psychoeducational interventions (PIs), which broadly deliver accurate information about health issues and self-management. Objective, methods: Systematic search of targeted PIs as part of prevention/management approaches for adolescent depression. Searches were undertaken independently in PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, guidelines, reviews (including Cochrane), and reference lists. Key authors were contacted. No restrictions regarding publishing dates. Results: Fifteen studies were included: seven targeted adolescents with depression/depressive symptoms, eight targeted adolescents ‘at risk' e.g. with a family history of depression. Most involved family/group programmes; others included individual, school-based and online approaches. PIs may affect understanding of depression, identification of symptoms, communication, engagement, and mental health outcomes. Conclusion, practice implications: PIs can have a role in preventing/managing adolescent depression, as a first-line or adjunctive approach. The limited number of studies, heterogeneity in formats and evaluation, and inconsistent approach to defining PI, make it difficult to compare programmes and measure overall effectiveness. Further work needs to establish an agreed definition of PI, develop/evaluate PIs in line with frameworks for complex interventions, and analyse their active components

    Ethics and Epidemiology Workshop Report: Towards Ethics-Informed Epidemiology and Epidemiology-Informed Ethics

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    Two key groups of researchers have worked in parallel to advance health equity—one on the descriptive component (those in public health sciences, e.g., epidemiologists) and one on the normative component (those in the humanities and social sciences, e.g., philosophers and ethicists). Yet a significant gulf exists between their respective research. Consequently, advances in thinking regarding the philosophical underpinnings and normative requirements of health equity have been largely divorced from the design of public health interventions that seek to reduce health inequities. As a consequence, public health interventions aiming to advance health equity may fail to target the most appropriate populations or the most ethically important health disparities and therefore likely fail to achieve the most ‘equitable’ health outcomes. At the same time, without empirically testing different philosophical criteria of health equity, philosophers will end up producing guidance for the design and implementation of public health interventions that may ultimately have undesirable (or less desirable) outcomes in practice. To discuss the contours of this challenge and possible avenues to address it, a meeting was held on December 5, 2022 at the University Club of Toronto with support from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), Public Health Ontario, Western University, and the University of Toronto. In this meeting report, we summarize the workshop proceedings, report key findings based on the expert contributions of meeting participants, and identify next steps

    Literacy practices in the learning careers of childcare students

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    This paper draws from the Literacies for Learning in Further Education research project, funded through the Teaching and Learning Research Programme. Drawing on the empirical study of literacy practices in eight Childcare courses in Scotland and England, we seek to demonstrate that, integral to the learning careers of students are literacy careers through which their learning is mediated. In the process, by drawing upon the lens of literacy, we also challenge some of the common sense understandings of learning in childcare. In particular we suggest that the literacy practices of lower level courses can be more diverse than those of higher level courses, producing confusing literacy careers for the students involved. We also point to the complexity of the literacy careers in childcare, given that students are required to mediate different aspects of their experience through literacy. In particular there are the mediations made possible by the use of information technology and those entailed in relating work placements to classroom practice. We argue that students on vocational courses have complex literacy careers and that a literacies approach to learning helps to reveal this complexity

    Optimising medicines use by South Asian and Middle Eastern groups in a primary care setting in the UK: validation of a tool to identify medicine-related problems

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    The ethnic minority groups (EMGs) are perceived to be more prone to medicine-related problems (MRPs) than the general population in United Kingdom. There is, therefore, a need for improved detection and prevention of MRPs in EMGs, such as South Asians (SA) and Middle Eastern (ME) populations, to avoid unnecessary GP visits and potential hospital admissions. In this cross-sectional study, the data were collected in 80 face-to-face semi-structured interviews using Gordon’s MRPs tool from seven pharmacies in London. The study involved patients aged over 18 from SA/ME origins who were prescribed three or more medicines. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically using Gordon’s coding frame and Nvivo 10. All issues under each of the main themes were explored and compared in an attempt to systematically adapt the Gordon’s MRPs tool for SA/ME populations. Some modifications were made to the original Gordon’s MRPs questionnaire to capture patients’ views regarding the use of medicines and the access to services. This also helped in identifying MRPs specific to SA/ME populations and proposing recommendations to address them. This included targeted medication use reviews (MURs), and tailored interventions to patients’ needs in improving medication use and access to services
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