541 research outputs found

    Polymorphisms of Bovine HSP90 and Their Implications in Beef Cattle Productivity

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    Production of beef cattle represents a 60billionindustryintheUnitedStates(USDA,2015).TheAmericanbeefcattleindustrylosesanestimated60 billion industry in the United States (USDA, 2015). The American beef cattle industry loses an estimated 370 million annually due to heat stress (St-Pierre, 2003). As of 2003, this was equal to nearly 99 million pounds of beef lost (USDA, 2015). The average American consumed roughly 65 pounds of beef in 2003; this means that the 99 million pounds of beef lost to heat stress would have been enough to feed approximately 1.5 million Americans for an entire year (Barclay, 2012)

    A comparison of Qatari and Chinese cadet table tennis players: analysis of Asian championship team competition

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    Video analysis was performed during the Asian Cadet Table Tennis Championships to determine playing style and patterns of top and lower ranked nations. China and Qatar were chosen for analysis based on their performance during the tournament (1st/2nd playoff and 7th/8th playoff respectively). Notational analysis techniques were implemented to analyze 3 matches for each nation. Significant (p<0.05) differences were identified in serve and return placement and shot choice. Chinese players used a higher proportion of long return placement and a higher percentage of topspin shots compared to Qatari players. This preliminary study suggests that at cadet level, Chinese players exhibit a more attacking style of play than Qatari players

    Implications for physical preparation of cadet male table tennis players: analysis of the 2013 championship singles final

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    The purpose of this case-study was to attain and describe data on the physical demands placed on elite Asian cadet male table tennis players in high-level competition. The 2013 Asian cadet singles final was notated live while the match was video recorded for further post-analysis. A typical point consisted of 4-5 shots with the player activated for 3.2 s, working for 3.3 s and resting for 17.8 s on average. The frequency of movement types was reported and typical footwork patterns were described for the most common movement types observed (step, linear jump, lateral jump and pivot). Typical footwork sequences were presented for the first two movements when serving and returning. This information could be used to inform a strength and conditioning programme for a developing cadet player seeking to replicate a playing style of an elite Asian cadet player

    Notational analysis of the cadet and junior singles table tennis finals at the 2013 Asian championship

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    The purpose of this paper was to provide a comparison between the two finals of the elite cadet and junior table tennis players. The 2013 Asian singles cadet and junior final matches were notated live and video recorded for further post-analysis. Junior players demonstrated a more variable serve placement strategy and favored the more aggressive topspin cross table return deep into the oppositions forehand. Work rate time was marginally greater per game in the junior finals (cadet vs. junior; 3.1s ± 1.7 3.3s ± 1.8) however junior players had a greater average rally length (5.3 s ± 2.6 and 4.4 ± 0.9) and greater number of high velocity top spin shots (21.5 ± 5.5 and 14.9 ± 5.6). Physicality and aggressive playing style increases with both age and ability level. These data provide a start to inform coaches of the progression between the top levels at both age groups

    Identifying the Neural Correlates of Anticipatory Postural Control: A Novel fMRI Paradigm

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    Altered postural control in the trunk/hip musculature is a characteristic of multiple neurological and musculoskeletal conditions. Previously it was not possible to determine if altered cortical and subcortical sensorimotor brain activation underlies impairments in postural control. This study used a novel fMRI-compatible paradigm to identify the brain activation associated with postural control in the trunk and hip musculature. BOLD fMRI imaging was conducted as participants performed two versions of a lower limb task involving lifting the left leg to touch the foot to a target. For the supported leg raise (SLR) the leg is raised from the knee while the thigh remains supported. For the unsupported leg raise (ULR) the leg is raised from the hip, requiring postural muscle activation in the abdominal/hip extensor musculature. Significant brain activation during the SLR task occurred predominantly in the right primary and secondary sensorimotor cortical regions. Brain activation during the ULR task occurred bilaterally in the primary and secondary sensorimotor cortical regions, as well as cerebellum and putamen. In comparison with the SLR, the ULR was associated with significantly greater activation in the right premotor/SMA, left primary motor and cingulate cortices, primary somatosensory cortex, supramarginal gyrus/parietal operculum, superior parietal lobule, cerebellar vermis, and cerebellar hemispheres. Cortical and subcortical regions activated during the ULR, but not during the SLR, were consistent with the planning, and execution of a task involving multisegmental, bilateral postural control. Future studies using this paradigm will determine mechanisms underlying impaired postural control in patients with neurological and musculoskeletal dysfunction

    Structural Sensorimotor Adaptations in Young Adults with Low Back Pain

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    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is the largest cause of disability worldwide. There is evidence for regional structural brain adaptation in CLBP. Most studies have investigated middle-aged adults and show decreased grey matter density in pain processing regions. It is not clear if these adaptations are evident early in the lifespan of individuals with CLBP. The purpose of the study was to compare sensorimotor gray matter density in young adults with a history of CLBP with back-healthy controls. 53 young adults with a greater than 1-year history of CLBP and 29 young adults with no history of LBP participated. Clinical characteristics of the LBP group were quantified with measures of pain duration and intensity as well as pain-related fear and disability. Gray matter density was quantified with voxel-based morphometry. Whole brain and sensorimotor region of interest (ROI) comparisons between groups were made after covarying for age, sex, and total intracranial volume. ROIs were determined a priori. Associations between clinical characteristics and average gray matter density in sensorimotor ROI comparisons were explored with Pearson\u27s correlation coefficients. Individuals with CLBP reported an average duration of pain of 4.9 (+/- 2.2 years) and average pain intensity of 5.0/10. The LBP group had greater gray matter in the right primary somatosensory cortex, right inferior parietal lobule, and right midcingulate cortex (all p \u3c 0.05 FWE corrected). There were significant positive associations between average gray matter and clinical characteristics in the anterior, mid, and posterior cingulate cortices, the supramarginal gyrus, superior parietal lobule and supplementary motor area (all p \u3c 0.05). We demonstrate that in young adults, CLBP is associated with structural neuroplasticity in regions involved in sensory processing, motor control, and the sensory and emotional aspects of pain experience. Increased grey matter density early in the lifespan of individuals with CLBP may reflect an adaptation to ongoing nociceptive input

    The effects of the spontaneous presence of a spouse/partner and others on cardiovascular reactions to an acute psychological challenge

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    The presence of supportive others has been associated with attenuated cardiovascular reactivity in the laboratory. The effects of the presence of a spouse and others in a more naturalistic setting have received little attention. Blood pressure and heart rate reactions to mental stress were recorded at home in 1028 married/partnered individuals. For 112 participants, their spouse/partner was present; for 78, at least one other person was present. Women tested with a spouse/partner present showed lower magnitude systolic blood pressure and heart rate reactivity than those tested without. Individuals tested with at least one nonspousal other present also displayed attenuated reactivity. This extends the results of laboratory studies and indicates that the spontaneous presence of others is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular reactivity in an everyday environment; spouse/partner presence would appear to be especially effective for women.\ud \u

    Principles of meiotic chromosome assembly revealed in S. cerevisiae

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    During meiotic prophase, chromosomes organise into a series of chromatin loops emanating from a proteinaceous axis, but the mechanisms of assembly remain unclear. Here we use Saccharomyces cerevisiae to explore how this elaborate three-dimensional chromosome organisation is linked to genomic sequence. As cells enter meiosis, we observe that strong cohesin-dependent grid-like Hi-C interaction patterns emerge, reminiscent of mammalian interphase organisation, but with distinct regulation. Meiotic patterns agree with simulations of loop extrusion with growth limited by barriers, in which a heterogeneous population of expanding loops develop along the chromosome. Importantly, CTCF, the factor that imposes similar features in mammalian interphase, is absent in S. cerevisiae, suggesting alternative mechanisms of barrier formation. While grid-like interactions emerge independently of meiotic chromosome synapsis, synapsis itself generates additional compaction that matures differentially according to telomere proximity and chromosome size. Collectively, our results elucidate fundamental principles of chromosome assembly and demonstrate the essential role of cohesin within this evolutionarily conserved process

    Transmission of HIV-1 infection in sub-Saharan Africa and effect of elimination of unsafe injections

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    During the past year, a group has argued that unsafe injections are a major if not the main mode of HIV-1 transmission\ud in sub-Saharan Africa. We review the main arguments used to question the epidemiological interpretations on the lead\ud role of unsafe sex in HIV-1 transmission, and conclude there is no compelling evidence that unsafe injections are a\ud predominant mode of HIV-1 transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Conversely, though there is a clear need to eliminate\ud all unsafe injections, epidemiological evidence indicates that sexual transmission continues to be by far the major\ud mode of spread of HIV-1 in the region. Increased efforts are needed to reduce sexual transmission of HIV-1
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