12,135 research outputs found

### Joint effect of lattice interaction and potential fluctuation in colossal magnetoresistive manganites

Taking into account both the Jahn-Teller lattice distortion and the on-site
electronic potential fluctuations in the orbital-degenerated double-exchange
model, in which both the core-spin and the lattice distortion are treated
classically, we investigate theoretically the metal-insulator transition (MIT)
in manganites by considering the electronic localization effect. An inverse
matrix method is developed for calculation in which we use the inverse of the
transfer matrix to obtain the localization length. We find that within
reasonable range of parameters, both the lattice effect and the potential
fluctuation are responsible to the occurrence of the MIT. The role of the
orbital configuration is also discussed.Comment: 4 figure

### Two-Qubit Separabilities as Piecewise Continuous Functions of Maximal Concurrence

The generic real (b=1) and complex (b=2) two-qubit states are 9-dimensional
and 15-dimensional in nature, respectively. The total volumes of the spaces
they occupy with respect to the Hilbert-Schmidt and Bures metrics are
obtainable as special cases of formulas of Zyczkowski and Sommers. We claim
that if one could determine certain metric-independent 3-dimensional
"eigenvalue-parameterized separability functions" (EPSFs), then these formulas
could be readily modified so as to yield the Hilbert-Schmidt and Bures volumes
occupied by only the separable two-qubit states (and hence associated
separability probabilities). Motivated by analogous earlier analyses of
"diagonal-entry-parameterized separability functions", we further explore the
possibility that such 3-dimensional EPSFs might, in turn, be expressible as
univariate functions of some special relevant variable--which we hypothesize to
be the maximal concurrence (0 < C <1) over spectral orbits. Extensive numerical
results we obtain are rather closely supportive of this hypothesis. Both the
real and complex estimated EPSFs exhibit clearly pronounced jumps of magnitude
roughly 50% at C=1/2, as well as a number of additional matching
discontinuities.Comment: 12 pages, 7 figures, new abstract, revised for J. Phys.

### Treatments of the exchange energy in density-functional theory

Following a recent work [Gal, Phys. Rev. A 64, 062503 (2001)], a simple
derivation of the density-functional correction of the Hartree-Fock equations,
the Hartree-Fock-Kohn-Sham equations, is presented, completing an integrated
view of quantum mechanical theories, in which the Kohn-Sham equations, the
Hartree-Fock-Kohn-Sham equations and the ground-state Schrodinger equation
formally stem from a common ground: density-functional theory, through its
Euler equation for the ground-state density. Along similar lines, the Kohn-Sham
formulation of the Hartree-Fock approach is also considered. Further, it is
pointed out that the exchange energy of density-functional theory built from
the Kohn-Sham orbitals can be given by degree-two homogeneous N-particle
density functionals (N=1,2,...), forming a sequence of degree-two homogeneous
exchange-energy density functionals, the first element of which is minus the
classical Coulomb-repulsion energy functional.Comment: 19 pages; original manuscript from 2001 (v1) revised for publication,
with presentation substantially improved, some errors corrected, plus an
additional summarizing figure (Appendix B) include

### Advances in delimiting the Hilbert-Schmidt separability probability of real two-qubit systems

We seek to derive the probability--expressed in terms of the Hilbert-Schmidt
(Euclidean or flat) metric--that a generic (nine-dimensional) real two-qubit
system is separable, by implementing the well-known Peres-Horodecki test on the
partial transposes (PT's) of the associated 4 x 4 density matrices). But the
full implementation of the test--requiring that the determinant of the PT be
nonnegative for separability to hold--appears to be, at least presently,
computationally intractable. So, we have previously implemented--using the
auxiliary concept of a diagonal-entry-parameterized separability function
(DESF)--the weaker implied test of nonnegativity of the six 2 x 2 principal
minors of the PT. This yielded an exact upper bound on the separability
probability of 1024/{135 pi^2} =0.76854$. Here, we piece together
(reflection-symmetric) results obtained by requiring that each of the four 3 x
3 principal minors of the PT, in turn, be nonnegative, giving an
improved/reduced upper bound of 22/35 = 0.628571. Then, we conclude that a
still further improved upper bound of 1129/2100 = 0.537619 can be found by
similarly piecing together the (reflection-symmetric) results of enforcing the
simultaneous nonnegativity of certain pairs of the four 3 x 3 principal minors.
In deriving our improved upper bounds, we rely repeatedly upon the use of
certain integrals over cubes that arise. Finally, we apply an independence
assumption to a pair of DESF's that comes close to reproducing our numerical
estimate of the true separability function.Comment: 16 pages, 9 figures, a few inadvertent misstatements made near the
end are correcte

### A priori probability that a qubit-qutrit pair is separable

We extend to arbitrarily coupled pairs of qubits (two-state quantum systems)
and qutrits (three-state quantum systems) our earlier study (quant-ph/0207181),
which was concerned with the simplest instance of entangled quantum systems,
pairs of qubits. As in that analysis -- again on the basis of numerical
(quasi-Monte Carlo) integration results, but now in a still higher-dimensional
space (35-d vs. 15-d) -- we examine a conjecture that the Bures/SD (statistical
distinguishability) probability that arbitrarily paired qubits and qutrits are
separable (unentangled) has a simple exact value, u/(v Pi^3)= >.00124706, where
u = 2^20 3^3 5 7 and v = 19 23 29 31 37 41 43 (the product of consecutive
primes). This is considerably less than the conjectured value of the Bures/SD
probability, 8/(11 Pi^2) = 0736881, in the qubit-qubit case. Both of these
conjectures, in turn, rely upon ones to the effect that the SD volumes of
separable states assume certain remarkable forms, involving "primorial"
numbers. We also estimate the SD area of the boundary of separable qubit-qutrit
states, and provide preliminary calculations of the Bures/SD probability of
separability in the general qubit-qubit-qubit and qutrit-qutrit cases.Comment: 9 pages, 3 figures, 2 tables, LaTeX, we utilize recent exact
computations of Sommers and Zyczkowski (quant-ph/0304041) of "the Bures
volume of mixed quantum states" to refine our conjecture

### EDITOR’S NOTE: Identifying An Education Research Study’s Limitations

Discipline-based science education research studies face many limitations. One is that study-participants are human beings and apt to be inconsistent in how they respond to educational interventions—even high quality and highly effective ones. The second is that researchers themselves are human and well poised to use study designs and data analysis approaches that yield the most desired results. In the end, simply having “too small a sample size” is a short-sighted limitation. It is author’s intellectually pursuing the full range of possible limitations of a study that new insights and new experimental designs can be intellectually created. The discussion of limitations should bring forth ideas and next steps pathways for researchers to follow, making articles more of a conversation and intellectual stimulation of a research trajectory rather than an abrupt ending to a study

### Spin swap vs. double occupancy in quantum gates

We propose an approach to realize quantum gates with electron spins localized
in a semiconductor that uses double occupancy to advantage. With a fast
(non-adiabatic) time control of the tunnelling, the probability of double
occupancy is first increased and then brought back exactly to zero. The quantum
phase built in this process can be exploited to realize fast quantum
operations. We illustrate the idea focusing on the half-swap operation, which
is the key two-qubit operation needed to build a CNOT gate.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figure

### Satellite Quenching and the Lifecycle of Dwarf Galaxies.

In the past ten years the known population of Local Group dwarf galaxies has
expanded substantially, both to greater distances from the Milky Way and to
lower dwarf masses. This growing sample allows us to study the dwarf system as a
population, and ask which processes and events are most responsible for
setting the properties of dwarfs. The dichotomy between star forming dwarf
irregulars and quenched dwarf spheroidals is the principal differentiation we
see in this population, but we do not have a definitive understanding of what
causes this distinction. With the aim of advancing our understanding of this
problem, I present the discovery and characterization of additional dwarf
galaxies, further building up this sample. From this, I combine the known Local
Group dwarfs with models of the Galaxy's formation to understand if interactions
with a massive host could be responsible for transforming dwarf irregulars into
dwarf spheroidals. I also use these models to investigate the changing
efficiency of this transformation between the lowest mass and higher mass
satellites. Finally, I show evidence of a past interactions between dwarf
galaxies and the Milky Way disk, presenting a wide field map of the resulting
debris. Together these efforts attempt to place the Local Group system of dwarfs
in a cosmological context to yield an improved picture of their origin and
evolution.PhDAstronomy and AstrophysicsUniversity of Michigan, Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studieshttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/113438/1/ctslater_1.pd

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