185 research outputs found

### Library Reader Issue 04: The eBook Edge

Library resource awareness poster covering electronic books, Kill A Wat energy meters, and Staff Pick Rome.https://dune.une.edu/libraryreader/1003/thumbnail.jp

### Pulay forces from localized orbitals optimized in situ using a psinc basis set

In situoptimization of a set of localized orbitals with respect to a systematically improvable basis set independent of the position of the atoms, such as psinc functions, would theoretically eliminate the correction due to Pulay forces from the total ionic forces. We demonstrate that for strict localization constraints, especially with small localization regions, there can be non-negligible Pulay forces that must be calculated as a correction to the Hellmann-Feynman forces in the ground state. Geometry optimization calculations, which rely heavily upon accurate evaluation of the total ionic forces, show much better convergence when Pulay forces are included. The more conventional case, where the local orbitals remain fixed to pseudo-atomic orbital multiple-Ī¶ basis sets, also benefits from this implementation. We have validated the method on several test cases, including a DNA fragment with 1045 atoms

### Accurate ionic forces and geometry optimization in linear-scaling density-functional theory with local orbitals

Linear scaling methods for density-functional theory (DFT) simulations are formulated in terms of localized orbitals in real space, rather than the delocalized eigenstates of conventional approaches. In local-orbital methods, relative to conventional DFT, desirable properties can be lost to some extent, such as the translational invariance of the total energy of a system with respect to small displacements and the smoothness of the potential-energy surface. This has repercussions for calculating accurate ionic forces and geometries. In this work we present results from onetep, our linear scaling method based on localized orbitals in real space. The use of psinc functions for the underlying basis set and on-the-fly optimization of the localized orbitals results in smooth potential-energy surfaces that are consistent with ionic forces calculated using the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. This enables accurate geometry optimization to be performed. Results for surface reconstructions in silicon are presented, along with three example systems demonstrating the performance of a quasi-Newton geometry optimization algorithm: an organic zwitterion, a point defect in an ionic crystal, and a semiconductor nanostructure.<br/

### Energy decomposition analysis approaches and their evaluation on prototypical proteinādrug interaction patterns

The partitioning of the energy in ab initio quantum mechanical calculations into its chemical origins (e.g., electrostatics, exchange-repulsion, polarization, and charge transfer) is a relatively recent development; such concepts of isolating chemically meaningful energy components from the interaction energy have been demonstrated by variational and perturbation based energy decomposition analysis approaches. The variational methods are typically derived from the early energy decomposition analysis of Morokuma [Morokuma, J. Chem. Phys., 1971, 55, 1236], and the perturbation approaches from the popular symmetry-adapted perturbation theory scheme [Jeziorski et al., Methods and Techniques in Computational Chemistry: METECC-94, 1993, ch. 13, p. 79]. Since these early works, many developments have taken place aiming to overcome limitations of the original schemes and provide more chemical significance to the energy components, which are not uniquely defined. In this review, after a brief overview of the origins of these methods we examine the theory behind the currently popular variational and perturbation based methods from the point of view of biochemical applications. We also compare and discuss the chemical relevance of energy components produced by these methods on six test sets that comprise model systems that display interactions typical of biomolecules (such as hydrogen bonding and pi-pi stacking interactions) including various treatments of the dispersion energy

### Computational prediction of L_{3} EXAFS spectra of gold nanoparticles from classical molecular dynamics simulations

We present a computational approach for the simulation of extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra of nanoparticles directly from molecular dynamics simulations without fitting any of the structural parameters of the nanoparticle to experimental data. The calculation consists of two stages. First, a molecular dynamics simulation of the nanoparticle is performed and then the EXAFS spectrum is computed from āsnapshotsā of structures extracted from the simulation. A probability distribution function approach calculated directly from the molecular dynamics simulations is used to ensure a balanced sampling of photoabsorbing atoms and their surrounding scattering atoms while keeping the number of EXAFS calculations that need to be performed to a manageable level. The average spectrum from all configurations and photoabsorbing atoms is computed as an Au L3-edge EXAFS spectrum with the FEFF 8.4 package, which includes the self-consistent calculation of atomic potentials. We validate and apply this approach in simulations of EXAFS spectra of gold nanoparticles with sizes between 20 and 60 Ć
. We investigate the effect of size, structural anisotropy, and thermal motion on the gold nanoparticle EXAFS spectra and we find that our simulations closely reproduce the experimentally determined spectra

### Fitting EXAFS data using molecular dynamics outputs and a histogram approach

The estimation of metal nanoparticle diameter by analysis of extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data from coordination numbers is nontrivial, particularly for particles <5 nm in diameter, for which the undercoordination of surface atoms becomes an increasingly significant contribution to the average coordination number. These undercoordinated atoms have increased degrees of freedom over those within the core of the particle, which results in an increase in the degree of structural disorder with decreasing particle size. This increase in disorder, however, is not accounted for by the standard means of EXAFS analysis, where each coordination shell is fitted with a single bond length and disorder term. In addition, the surface atoms of nanoparticles have been observed to undergo a greater contraction than those in the core, further increasing the range of bond distances. Failure to account for this structural change results in an increased disorder being measured, and therefore, a lower apparent coordination number and corresponding particle size are found. Here, we employ molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for a range of nanoparticle sizes to determine each of the nearest neighbor bond lengths, which were then binned into a histogram to construct a radial distribution function (RDF). Each bin from the histogram was considered to be a single scattering path and subsequently used in fitting the EXAFS data obtained for a series of carbon-supported platinum nanoparticles. These MD-based fits are compared with those obtained using a standard fitting model using Artemis and the standard model with the inclusion of higher cumulants, which has previously been used to account for the non-Gaussian distribution of neighboring atoms around the absorber. The results from all three fitting methods were converted to particle sizes and compared with those obtained from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. We find that the use of molecular dynamics simulations resulted in an improved fit over both the standard and cumulant models, in terms of both quality of fit and correlation with the known average particle size

### Workshop report. Linear-Scaling Ab Initio Calculations: Applications and Future Directions

The study of properties and of processes in materials, frequently hinges upon understanding phenomena which originate at the atomic level. In such cases the accurate description of the interactions between large numbers of atoms is critical and in turn requires the accurate description of the electrons which play a crucial role in the bonding of atoms into molecules, surfaces and solids. This can only be achieved by solving the equations of quantum mechanics. These
equations are too complicated to solve exactly; however their solutions can be approximated by computational techniques. The most accurate ? but also most computationally demanding ? are the āab initioā techniques which do not use any empirical adjustable parameters. Amongst them, the Density Functional Theory (DFT) formulation of quantum mechanics stands out as an excellent compromise between accuracy and computational efficiency. However, the applicability of ab initio techniques is severely limited by poor scaling: the computational effort needed to perform an ab initio calculation increases with (at least) the third power of the number of atoms, N. This cubic-scaling bottleneck limits the number of atoms we can study to a few hundred at most, even on parallel supercomputers. To overcome this length-scale limitation, a number of researchers worldwide have been pioneering the development of a novel class of ab initio methods with linear-scaling or āOrder Nā (O(N)) computational cost which nevertheless retain the same high level of accuracy as the conventional approaches. While physically motivated, such methods have proved particularly hard to develop as they introduce highly non-trivial localisation constraints. Nevertheless, many major obstacles have been overcome and a number of O(N)
methods (SIESTA, CONQUEST, ONETEP, etc.) for ground state DFT calculations on systems with a gap (e.g. molecules, semiconductors and insulators) are now available and have reached a state of maturity that allows them to be used to study ārealā materials. The particular focus of this workshop is therefore to look forward to what can be achieved in the next few years. Our aim is twofold: (1) As O(N) methods are currently extending the applicability of DFT calculations
to problems involving biomolecules and nanostructures they are leading to completely new levels of understanding of these systems. This CECAM meeting will give us the opportunity to make an appraisal of such large-scale simulations and their potential to connect more directly to experiments. (2) We also want to examine the options for extending linear-scaling to problems that cannot be treated by ground-state DFT but require other, more complex approaches. These include methods for treating metallic systems, excited states and wavefunction-based theories for including electronic correlation. Finding ways to transform these methods to linear-scaling
cost, and hence extent their applicability to the nano-scale, is the next big challenge that the community of developers of large-scale electronic structure methods is beginning to face. We
hope that this workshop will stimulate these major new O(N) methodological developments by bringing together the leading groups in the development of O(N) DFT methods with the leading
groups in the development of metal and excited-state or wavefunction-based methods. Strong emphasis during the workshop will be given to discussion in order to promote the exchange
of ideas between different communities (Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science, Biochemistry) which are all interested in large-scale applications with ab initio accuracy but are approaching
them from different perspectives

### On the validity of the bipolaron model for undoped and AlCl4- doped PEDOT

The conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is one of the
most highly researched materials, yet electronic structure investigations of
conducting polymers are still uncommon. The bipolaron model has traditionally
been the dominant attempt to explain the electronic structure of PEDOT. Though
recent theoretical studies have begun to move away from this model, some
aspects remain commonplace, such as the concepts of bipolarons or polaron
pairs. In this work, we use density functional theory to investigate the
electronic structure of undoped and AlCl4- doped PEDOT oligomers. By
considering the influence of oligomer length, oxidation or doping level and
spin state, we find no evidence for self-localisation of positive charges in
PEDOT as predicted by the bipolaron model. Instead, we find that a single or
twin peak structural distortion can occur at any oxidation or doping level.
Rather than representing bipolarons or polaron pairs, these are electron
distributions driven by a range of factors, which also disproves the concept of
polaron pairs. Localisation of distortions does occur in the doped case,
although distortions can span an arbitrary number of nearby anions.
Furthermore, conductivity in conducting polymers has been experimentally
observed to reduce at very high doping levels. We show that at high anion
concentrations, the non-bonding orbitals of the anions cluster below the
HOMO-LUMO gap and begin to mix into the HOMO of the overall system. We propose
that this mixing of highly localised anionic orbitals into the HOMO reduces the
conductivity of the polymer and contributes to the reduced conductivity
previously observed

### DL_MG : A Parallel Multigrid Poisson and PoissonāBoltzmann Solver for Electronic Structure Calculations in Vacuum and Solution

The solution of the Poisson equation is a crucial step in electronic structure calculations, yielding the electrostatic potentialāa key component of the quantum mechanical Hamiltonian. In recent decades, theoretical advances and increases in computer performance have made it possible to simulate the electronic structure of extended systems in complex environments. This requires the solution of more complicated variants of the Poisson equation, featuring nonhomogeneous dielectric permittivities, ionic concentrations with nonlinear dependencies, and diverse boundary conditions. The analytic solutions generally used to solve the Poisson equation in vacuum (or with homogeneous permittivity) are not applicable in these circumstances, and numerical methods must be used. In this work, we present DL_MG, a flexible, scalable, and accurate solver library, developed specifically to tackle the challenges of solving the Poisson equation in modern large-scale electronic structure calculations on parallel computers. Our solver is based on the multigrid approach and uses an iterative high-order defect correction method to improve the accuracy of solutions. Using two chemically relevant model systems, we tested the accuracy and computational performance of DL_MG when solving the generalized Poisson and PoissonāBoltzmann equations, demonstrating excellent agreement with analytic solutions and efficient scaling to ā¼10^9 unknowns and 100s of CPU cores. We also applied DL_MG in actual large-scale electronic structure calculations, using the ONETEP linear-scaling electronic structure package to study a 2615 atom proteināligand complex with routinely available computational resources. In these calculations, the overall execution time with DL_MG was not significantly greater than the time required for calculations using a conventional FFT-based solver

### Expanding the scope of density derived electrostatic and chemical charge partitioning to thousands of atoms

The density derived electrostatic and chemical (DDEC/c3) method is implemented into the onetep program to compute net atomic charges (NACs), as well as higher-order atomic multipole moments, of molecules, dense solids, nanoclusters, liquids, and biomolecules using linear-scaling density functional theory (DFT) in a distributed memory parallel computing environment. For a >1000 atom model of the oxygenated myoglobin protein, the DDEC/c3 net charge of the adsorbed oxygen molecule is approximately -1e (in agreement with the Weiss model) using a dynamical mean field theory treatment of the iron atom, but much smaller in magnitude when using the generalized gradient approximation. For GaAs semiconducting nanorods, the system dipole moment using the DDEC/c3 NACs is about 5% higher in magnitude than the dipole computed directly from the quantum mechanical electron density distribution, and the DDEC/c3 NACs reproduce the electrostatic potential to within approximately 0.1 V on the nanorodās solvent-accessible surface. As examples of conducting materials, we study (i) a 55-atom Pt cluster with an adsorbed CO molecule and (ii) the dense solids Mo2C and Pd3V. Our results for solid Mo2C and Pd3V confirm the necessity of a constraint enforcing exponentially decaying electron density in the tails of buried atoms

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