164 research outputs found

    Perturbiner Methods for Effective Field Theories and the Double Copy

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    Perturbiner expansion provides a generating function for all Berends-Giele currents in a given quantum field theory. We apply this method to various effective field theories with and without color degrees of freedom. In the colored case, we study the U(N) non-linear sigma model of Goldstone bosons (NLSM) in a recent parametrization due to Cheung and Shen, as well as its extension involving a coupling to the bi-adjoint scalar. We propose a Lagrangian and a Cachazo-He-Yuan formula for the latter valid in multi-trace sectors and systematically calculate its amplitudes. Furthermore, we make a similar proposal for a higher-derivative correction to NLSM that agrees with the subleading order of the abelian Z-theory. In the colorless cases, we formulate perturbiner expansions for the special Galileon and Born-Infeld theories. Finally, we study Kawai-Lewellen-Tye-like double-copy relations for Berends-Giele currents between the above colored and colorless theories. We find that they hold up to pure gauge terms, but without the need for further field redefinitions.Comment: 44 page

    Closing the Neutrino "BSM Gap": Physics Potential of Atmospheric Through-Going Muons at DUNE

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    Many Beyond-Standard Model physics signatures are enhanced in high-energy neutrino interactions. To explore these signatures, ultra-large Cherenkov detectors such as IceCube exploit event samples with charged current muon neutrino interactions > 1 TeV. Most of these interactions occur below the detector volume, and produce muons that enter the detector. However, the large spacing between detectors leads to inefficiency for measuring muons with energies below or near the critical energy of 400 GeV. In response, IceCube has built a densely instrumented region within the larger detector. This provides large samples of well-reconstructed interactions that are contained within the densely instrumented region, extending up to energies of ~50 GeV. This leaves a gap of relatively unexplored atmospheric-neutrino events with energies between 50 GeV and 1 TeV in the ultra-large detectors. In this paper we point out that interesting Beyond Standard Model signatures may appear in this energy window, and that early running of the DUNE far detectors can give insight into new physics that may appear in this range.Comment: 10 pages, 9 figures, 1 tabl

    The prognostic role of electrocardiographic left ventricular mass assessment for identifying PCI-treated patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction at high risk of unfavourable outcome

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    Background: In prognostic terms, evaluation of an ECG recording in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) appears to be inferior to echocardiographic (ECHO) assessment of left ventricular remodelling and the activities of cardiac enzymes and certain hormones. It was our hypothesis that, in the era of interventional treatment of AMI, some ECG parameters are still valid for the purpose of risk stratification. Methods: A total of 66 consecutive patients with AMI (43 male and 23 female, with a mean age of 61 &#177; 11 years) were treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In each patient ECG and ECHO examinations were performed within 5-7 days of admission for the detection of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). In further analysis the following ECG- based LVH parameters were taken into consideration: Sokolov-Lyon voltage duration (SLVd), Cornell voltage duration CVd), 12-lead QRS voltage duration (12QRSVd), their product with QRS duration and an ECG index of left ventricular mass (LVMIECG). Patients were followed for 6 months. The combined end-point included death, infarction, a need for prompt coronary intervention and hospitalization for heart failure. Results: The combined end-point was observed in 16 patients (24.2%). Survival analysis revealed that the most important prognostic factors were associated with a prolongation of the QRS duration. Increased SLVd was found in 43% of the patients with events compared to 14% in those without them (p < 0.01), CVd in 43% vs. 12% (p < 0.05), 12QRSVd in 81% vs. 44% (p < 0.05) and LVMIECG in 75% vs. 26%, p < 0.001). There was no evidence for a difference in Cornell voltage. Univariate logistic regression indicated a 4-fold to 8-fold increase in the risk of events associated with abnormal SLV, SLVd or LVMIECG. Multivariate Cox analysis showed that the LVH presence in the ECG, defined as an increased SLVd product or increased LVMIECG, was an independent predictor of cardiovascular events after AMI. Conclusions: In the era of interventional treatment of AMI, the ECG features of left ventricular hypertrophy carry independent significant prognostic information. (Cardiol J 2007; 14: 347&#8211;354

    Constitutive activation of MET signaling impairs myogenic differentiation of rhabdomyosarcoma and promotes its development and progression

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    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a soft tissue sarcoma, which may originate from impaired differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Expression of MET receptor is elevated in alveolar RMS subtype (ARMS) which is associated with worse prognosis, compared to embryonal RMS (ERMS). Forced differentiation of ARMS cells diminishes MET level and, as shown previously, MET silencing induces differentiation of ARMS. In ERMS cells introduction of TPR-MET oncogene leads to an uncontrolled overstimulation of the MET receptor downstream signaling pathways. In vivo, tumors formed by those cells in NOD-SCID mice display inhibited differentiation, enhanced proliferation, diminished apoptosis and increased infiltration of neutrophils. Consequently, tumors grow significantly faster and they display enhanced ability to metastasize to lungs and to vascularize due to elevated VEGF, MMP9 and miR-378 expression. In vitro, TPR-MET ERMS cells display enhanced migration, chemotaxis and invasion toward HGF and SDF-1. Introduction of TPR-MET into MSC increases survival and may induce expression of early myogenic factors depending on the genetic background, and it blocks terminal differentiation of skeletal myoblasts. To conclude, our results suggest that activation of MET signaling may cause defects in myogenic differentiation leading to rhabdomyosarcoma development and progression

    SNAIL is a key regulator of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma tumor growth and differentiation through repression of MYF5 and MYOD function

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    AbstractRhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a mesenchymal tumor of soft tissue in children that originates from a myogenic differentiation defect. Expression of SNAIL transcription factor is elevated in the alveolar subtype of RMS (ARMS), characterized by a low myogenic differentiation status and high aggressiveness. In RMS patients SNAIL level increases with higher stage. Moreover, SNAIL level negatively correlates with MYF5 expression. The differentiation of human ARMS cells diminishes SNAIL level. SNAIL silencing in ARMS cells inhibits proliferation and induces differentiation in vitro, and thereby completely abolishes the growth of human ARMS xenotransplants in vivo. SNAIL silencing induces myogenic differentiation by upregulation of myogenic factors and muscle-specific microRNAs, such as miR-206. SNAIL binds to the MYF5 promoter suppressing its expression. SNAIL displaces MYOD from E-box sequences (CANNTG) that are associated with genes expressed during differentiation and G/C rich in their central dinucleotides. SNAIL silencing allows the re-expression of MYF5 and canonical MYOD binding, promoting ARMS cell myogenic differentiation. In differentiating ARMS cells SNAIL forms repressive complex with histone deacetylates 1 and 2 (HDAC1/2) and regulates their expression. Accordingly, in human myoblasts SNAIL silencing induces differentiation by upregulation of myogenic factors. Our data clearly point to SNAIL as a key regulator of myogenic differentiation and a new promising target for future ARMS therapies.</jats:p

    Prognostyczne znaczenie elektrokardiograficznej oceny masy lewej komory w identyfikacji pacjent贸w z ostrym zawa艂em serca z uniesieniem odcinka ST, leczonych pierwotn膮 angioplastyk膮 wie艅cow膮, z du偶ym ryzykiem niekorzystnego rokowania

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    Wst臋p: Pod wzgl臋dem rokowniczym wydaje si臋, 偶e analiza elektrokardiogramu (EKG) w ostrym zawale serca (AMI) ust臋puje echokardiograficznej ocenie przebudowy lewej komory oraz oznaczaniu aktywno艣ci enzym贸w sercowych i st臋偶enia niekt贸rych hormon贸w. Postanowiono zbada膰 hipotez臋, 偶e w erze interwencyjnego leczenia AMI niekt贸re parametry EKG wci膮偶 odgrywaj膮 rol臋 w stratyfikacji ryzyka. Metody: 艁膮cznie 66 kolejnych pacjent贸w z AMI (43 m臋偶czyzn i 23 kobiety, 艣redni wiek 61 &#177; 11 lat) poddano pierwotnej przezsk贸rnej interwencji wie艅cowej (PCI). U ka偶dego pacjenta w ci膮gu 5-7 dni od przyj臋cia wykonano EKG i badanie echokardiograficzne w celu wykrycia przerostu lewej komory (LVH). W dalszej analizie uwzgl臋dniono nast臋puj膮ce elektrokardiograficzne parametry LVH: iloczyn wska藕nika Soko艂owa-Lyona i czasu trwania zespo艂u QRS (SLVd), iloczyn wska藕nika Cornella i czasu trwania zespo艂u QRS (CVd), 艣redni膮 sum臋 amplitud za艂amk贸w zespo艂u QRS w 12 odprowadzeniach EKG, iloczyn tego parametru i czasu trwania zespo艂u QRS (12QRSVd) oraz elektrokardiograficzny wska藕nik masy lewej komory (LVMIECG). Pacjent贸w obserwowano przez 6 miesi臋cy. Z艂o偶ony punkt ko艅cowy obejmowa艂 zgony, zawa艂y serca, konieczno艣膰 niezw艂ocznej interwencji wie艅cowej, hospitalizacje z powodu niewydolno艣ci serca oraz incydenty m贸zgowo-naczyniowe. Wyniki: Z艂o偶ony punkt ko艅cowy stwierdzono u 16 pacjent贸w (24,2%). Analiza prze偶ywalno艣ci wykaza艂a, 偶e najwa偶niejsze czynniki rokownicze wi膮za艂y si臋 z wyd艂u偶eniem zespo艂u QRS. Zwi臋kszenie SLVd stwierdzono u 43% pacjent贸w z incydentami w por贸wnaniu z 14% badanych bez incydentu (p < 0,01), zwi臋kszenie CVd - odpowiednio u 43% i 12% pacjent贸w (p < 0,05), wzrost 12QRSVd - u 81% i 44% chorych (p < 0,005), a zwi臋kszenie LVMIECG - u 75% i 26% badanych (p < 0,001). Warto艣膰 wska藕nika Cornella nie r贸偶ni艂a si臋 mi臋dzy grupami z incydentami i bez incydent贸w. W analizie jednozmiennej regresji logistycznej wykazano 4-8-krotnie zwi臋kszone ryzyko w zwi膮zku z nieprawid艂owymi warto艣ciami wska藕nika Soko艂owa-Lyona, SLVd i LVMIECG. Wielozmienna analiza Coxa wykaza艂a, 偶e obecno艣膰 cech LVH w EKG, zdefiniowana jako zwi臋kszenie SLVd lub LVMIECG, by艂a niezale偶nym wska藕nikiem predykcyjnym wyst臋powania incydent贸w sercowo-naczyniowych po AMI. Wnioski: W erze interwencyjnego leczenia AMI elektrokardiograficzne cechy LVH maj膮 niezale偶n膮, istotn膮 warto艣膰 rokownicz膮. (Folia Cardiologica Excerpta 2007; 2: 581-589)

    Influence of interactions between the anthropometric parameters and smoking on blood pressure in 24-hour blood pressure monitoring

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    Wst臋p Obecno艣膰 nadwagi i oty艂o艣ci istotnie zwi臋ksza ryzyko wyst膮pienia incydent贸w sercowo-naczyniowych. Celem badania by艂o okre艣lenie wp艂ywu interakcji wska藕nik贸w antropometrycznych (wska藕nik masy cia艂a 鈥 BMI i stosunek obwodu talii do obwodu bioder 鈥 WHR) na warto艣膰 ci艣nienia t臋tniczego oraz ocena zale偶no艣ci pomi臋dzy dystrybucj膮 tkanki t艂uszczowej, paleniem tytoniu a wysoko艣ci膮 ci艣nienia t臋tniczego. Materia艂 i metody Prac臋 zrealizowano w ramach projektu EPOGH (European Project on Genes in Hypertension). Badaniem obj臋to 206 os贸b mi臋dzy 18 a 60 r偶. z rejonu Niepo艂omic, k. Krakowa. Ka偶dy z uczestnik贸w badania wype艂ni艂 standardowy kwestionariusz EPOGH. U wszystkich dokonano pomiar贸w antropometrycznych, biochemicznych (st臋偶enie cholesterolu ca艂kowitego i cholesterolu frakcji TG, LDL, HDL) oraz przeprowadzono ambulatoryjn膮, ca艂odobow膮 rejestracj臋 ci艣nienia t臋tniczego (ABPM). Kryterium klasyfikacji badanych do czterech grup stanowi艂y: poziom BMI (< 25,0 i 鈮 25,0 kg/m2) oraz warto艣膰 wska藕nika WHR (< Me i 鈮 Me; Me = 0,84). Analizy statystycznej dokonano przy u偶yciu pakietu Statistica 6.0 PL. Wyniki Badani charakteryzuj膮cy si臋 wy偶szym wska藕nikiem WHR byli starsi, reprezentowali p艂e膰 m臋sk膮, w wywiadzie cz臋艣ciej podawali palenie tytoniu. Standaryzowana analiza wykaza艂a wp艂yw BMI i WHR na wysoko艣膰 skurczowego ci艣nienia t臋tniczego, zar贸wno w ci膮gu dnia jak i nocy. Badani charakteryzuj膮cy si臋 BMI 鈮 25,0 kg/m2 i WHR 鈮 Me wykazywali istotnie wy偶sze warto艣ci ci艣nienia t臋tniczego ni偶 osoby o prawid艂owej masie cia艂a (BMI < 25,0 kg/m2 i WHR < Me) 鈥 w odniesieniu zar贸wno do skurczowego i rozkurczowego ci艣nienia w ci膮gu dnia i nocy. Analiza interakcji wykaza艂a znamienny statystycznie, kumulacyjny efekt oddzia艂ywania BMI i WHR na wysoko艣膰 ci艣nienia skurczowego w nocy. W tr贸jczynnikowej analizie interakcji 鈥 BMI, WHR, palenie tytoniu a wysoko艣膰 ci艣nienia t臋tniczego 鈥 nie odnotowano znamienno艣ci statystycznej. Stwierdzono jednak wy偶sze warto艣ci ci艣nienia w nocy u os贸b pal膮cych, z nadwag膮, wykazuj膮cych androidalny rozk艂ad tkanki t艂uszczowej. Wnioski Badanie potwierdzi艂o istotny, niezale偶ny efekt oddzia艂ywania interakcji wska藕nik贸w antropometrycznych: BMI i WHR na wysoko艣膰 nocnego ci艣nienia skurczowego. Palenie tytoniu nasila艂o niekorzystny wp艂yw oty艂o艣ci brzusznej na wysoko艣膰 ci艣nienia t臋tniczego.Background Overweight and obesity markedly increase the risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of the study was to identify the effect of interactions between the anthropometric parameters (body mass index 鈥 BMI and waist/hip ratio 鈥 WHR) on blood pressure values and to assess the relationship between adipose tissue distribution, smoking and blood pressure values. Material and methods The study was conducted as part of the EPOGH Project (European Project on Genes in Hypertension). The study population consisted of 206 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 60 years inhabiting the area of Niepolomice close to Krakow. Each study participant completed a standard EPOGH questionnaire. From all subjects we obtained anthropometric (BMI and WHR) and biochemical measurements (total cholesterol, TG, LDL and HDL cholesterol), and 24hr ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Entry criteria to four study groups were BMI (< 25,0 and 鈮 25,0 kg/m2) and WHR (< Me and 鈮 Me; Me = 0,84). Statistical analysis was done using the Statistica 6.0 PL. Results Subjects with higher WHR were older, male and more frequently reported smoking. Standardized analysis showed that BMI and WHR affected systolic blood pressure both day and night. Subjects with BMI 鈮 25,0 kg/m2 and WHR 3 Me had significantly higher blood pressure values as compared with subjects with normal body mass (BMI < < 25,0 kg/m2 and WHR < Me) both with respect to systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the daytime and nighttime. Analysis of interaction showed a significant cumulative effect of BMI and WHR on systolic blood pressure at night. Triple-factorial analysis of interactions 鈥 BMI, WHR, smoking versus blood pressure value 鈥 did not show statistical significance. However, smokers with abdominal overweight had higher blood pressure values at night. Conclusions The present study confirmed the significant independent effect of interactions between the anthropometric parameters: BMI and WHR on systolic blood pressure at night. Smoking potentiated the unfavorable effect of overweight and abdominal adipose tissue distribution on blood pressure value

    Influence of interaction between AGT G-6A, ACE D/I and AGTR1 A1166C gene polymorphisms on blood pressure and arterial stiffness

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    Wst臋p Celem badania by艂o ustalenie zwi膮zku polimorfizm贸w G-6A genu AGT, D/I genu ACE i A1166C genu AGTR1 z warto艣ciami ci艣nienia t臋tniczego i usztywnienia t臋tnic oraz ocena 艂膮cznego wp艂ywu wymienionych polimorfizm贸w genetycznych na wybrane parametry. Materia艂 i metody Badaniem obj臋to 52 rodziny (82 rodzic贸w i 103 dzieci). U ka偶dego uczestnika dokonano pomiar贸w ci艣nienia t臋tniczego: obwodowego (metoda konwencjonalna 鈥 SBPP, DBPP, PPP i 24-godzinny zapis 鈥 SBPA, DBPA, PPA) i centralnego (analiza fali t臋tna 鈥 SBPC, DBPC, PPC) oraz w艂asno艣ci elastycznych t臋tnic (wzmocnienie fali aortalnej 鈥 AG, obwodowy 鈥 AIxP i centralny 鈥 AIxC, wska藕niki wzmocnienia fali). Ponadto w艣r贸d os贸b uczestnicz膮cych w badaniu wykonano analizy genetyczne. Wyniki Analizy, dotycz膮ce pojedynczych polimorfizm贸w, wykaza艂y zale偶no艣膰 mi臋dzy polimorfizmem D/I genu ACE a SBPA, SBPC, PPA i PPC. Ponadto, stwierdzono obecno艣膰 istotnych statystycznie interakcji mi臋dzy polimorfizmami D/I genu ACE i A1166C genu AGTR1 w odniesieniu do SBPP (p = 0,02), SBPA (p = 0,03), SBPC (p = 0,03), PPP (p = 0,008), PPA (p = 0,02) oraz PPC (p = 0,007). W analizowanej populacji, u nosicieli allelu C genu AGTR1, SBPC by艂o o 7,5 mm Hg (p = 0,0005), PPP o 7,7 mm Hg (p = 0,003), PPA o 3,0 mm Hg (p = 0,09) a PPC o 8,4 mm Hg (p = 0,0007) wy偶sze u homozygot II genu ACE w por贸wnaniu z homozygotami DD. Dla parametr贸w usztywnienia t臋tnic, u nosicieli allelu C genu AGTR1 AG by艂o o 3,7 mm Hg (p = 0,004), AIxP o 7,1% (p = 0,07) a AIxC o 5,7% (p = 0,03) wy偶sze u homozygot II genu ACE w por贸wnaniu z homozygotami DD. Wnioski Uzyskane wyniki wskazuj膮 na 艂膮czne dzia艂anie polimorfizm贸w D/I genu ACE i A1166C genu AGTR1, z niekorzystnym wp艂ywem allelu I genu ACE i allelu C genu AGTR1 na ci艣nienie t臋tnicze oraz sztywno艣膰 t臋tnic.Background In a population-based approach we investigated whether polymorphisms in the genes encoding AGT (G-6A), ACE (D/I) and AGTR1 (A1166C), alone or in combination, affected blood pressure and arterial stiffness parameters. Materials and methods We randomly recruited 52 families (82 parents and 103 offspring). Peripheral pressures were derived from conventional (SBPP, systolic blood pressure, DBPP, diastolic blood pressure, PPP pulse pressure) and 24h-ambulatory BP measurements (SBPA, DBPA, PPA), respectively. Central pressures (SBPC, DBPC, PPC), augmentation pressure (AG), peripheral (AIxP) and central (AIxC) augmentation indexes were assessed by pulse wave analysis. Polymorphisms of selected genes of the RAA system were detected in all participants. Results In single gene analyzes, significant findings were revealed for ACE D/I polymorphism with respect to SBPA, SBPC, PPA and PPC. In further analyzes, the interactions between D/I ACE and A1166C AGTR1 gene polymorphisms reached statistically significant values with regard to SBPP (p = 0.02), SBPA (p = 0.03), SBPC (p = 0.03), PPP (p = 0.008), PPA (p = 0.02) and PPC (p = 0.007). In the analyzed population, for AGTR1 C allele carriers, SBPC was 7.5 mm Hg (p = 0.0005), PPP 7.7 mm Hg (p = 0.003), PPA 3.0 mm Hg (p = 0.09) and PPC 8.4 mm Hg (p = 0.0007) higher for ACE II homozygotes in comparison to DD homozygotes. For AGTR1 C allele carriers, with respect to arterial wall stiffness parameters, AG was 3.7 mm Hg (p = 0.004), AIxP 7.1% (p = 0.07) and AIxC 5.7% (p = 0.03) higher for ACE II homozygotes, as compared to DD homozygotes. Conclusions The interactions between D/I polymorphism of the ACE gene and A1166C polymorphism of the AGTR1 gene revealing joint negative effect of ACE I allele and AGTR1 C allele, with respect to blood pressure and arterial stiffness

    Influence of selected genetic polymorphisms of angiotensinogen, angiotensin-converting enzyme and type-1 angiotensin II receptor on arterial pressure and large artery stiffness parameters : depending on sodium intake

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    Wst臋p Celem pracy by艂o ustalenie zwi膮zku polimorfizm贸w G-6A genu AGT, D/I genu ACE i A1166C genu AGT1R z warto艣ciami ci艣nienia t臋tniczego i usztywnienia du偶ych t臋tnic oraz ocena zale偶no艣ci mi臋dzy czynnikami genetycznymi i 艣rodowiskowymi i ich 艂膮cznego wp艂ywu na analizowane parametry. Materia艂 i metody Badaniem obj臋to 52 rodziny (82 rodzic贸w i 103 dzieci). U ka偶dego uczestnika dokonano pomiar贸w ci艣nienia t臋tniczego: obwodowego (metoda konwencjonalna i zapis 24-godzinny) i centralnego (analiza fali t臋tna), a tak偶e w艂a艣ciwo艣ci elastycznych du偶ych t臋tnic. U os贸b uczestnicz膮cych w badaniu oznaczono dobowe wydalanie sodu z moczem oraz wykonano analizy genetyczne. Wyniki Analizy dotycz膮ce pojedynczych polimorfizm贸w wykaza艂y zale偶no艣膰 mi臋dzy polimorfizmem D/I genu ACE a 24-godzinnym i centralnym ci艣nieniem skurczowym (SBPA, SBPC) i t臋tna (PPA, PPC). Ponadto wykazano obecno艣膰 istotnych statystycznie interakcji mi臋dzy polimorfizmem D/I genu ACE a dobowym wydalaniem sodu z moczem w odniesieniu do SBPC, konwencjonalnego ci艣nienia t臋tna (PPP), PPC oraz wzmocnienia fali aortalnej (AG). W analizie asocjacji przeprowadzonej mi臋dzy parametrami ci艣nieniowymi i usztywnienia 艣cian naczy艅 a polimorfizmem D/I w tercylach dobowego wydalania sodu z moczem, w grupie os贸b homozygotycznych II w por贸wnaniu z nosicielami allelu D, w trzecim tercylu wydalania sodu, obserwowano istotnie statystyczne wy偶sze warto艣ci SBPC, PPP, PPA, PPC oraz AG, czego nie obserwowano w pierwszym i drugim tercylu. Wnioski W badanej populacji wykazano istotne interakcje mi臋dzy polimorfizmem D/I genu ACE a dobowym wydalaniem sodu z moczem w zakresie wp艂ywu na ci艣nienie t臋tnicze i sztywno艣膰 t臋tnic. Allel D genu ACE wykazywa艂 ochronn膮 rol臋 w grupie os贸b z wysokim dobowym spo偶yciem sodu.Background In a population-based and family-based approach we investigated, to what extent blood pressure and large artery stiffness relate to the AGT G-6A, ACE D/I and AGT1R A1166C gene polymorphisms, as well as the interaction between genetic and environmental factors and their joint influence on the aforementioned parameters. Materials and methods We recruited 52 families (82 parents and 103 offspring). Peripheral pressures were derived from conventional and 24h-ambulatory blood pressure measurements, respectively. Central pressures and large artery stiffness parameters were assessed by pulse wave analysis. All participants collected a 24-h urine sample for the measurement of sodium excretion as well as blood sample for the evaluation of genetic analyses. Results In single gene analyzes, significant findings were revealed for ACE D/I polymorphism with respect to 24h-ambulatory and central systolic (SBPA, SBPC) and pulse (PPA, PPC) pressures. In further analyzes, we found an interaction between ACE D/I genotype and 24-h urinary sodium excretion in relation to SBPC, conventional pulse pressure (PPP), PPC and augmentation pressure (AG). In the third tertile of the distribution of sodium excretion we observed significantly increased SBPC, PPP, PPA, PPC and AG in ACE II homozygotes compared to D allele carriers, which was not observed in first and second tertile. Conclusions In the examined group, the interactions between D/I polymorphism of the ACE gene and daily sodium excretion in the urine were revealed, in relation to the parameters of blood pressure and arterial wall stiffness.The D allele of ACE gene showed a protective role in the group of subjects with high daily sodium intake

    Model of the distribution of diastolic left ventricular posterior wall thickness in healthy adults and its impact on the behavior of a string of virtual cardiomyocytes

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    Correlation of the thickness of the left ventricular posterior wall (LVPWd) with various parameters, including age, gender, weight and height, was investigated in this study using regression models. Multicenter derived database comprised over 4,000 healthy individuals. The developed models were further utilized in the in vitro-in vivo (IVIV) translation of the drug cardiac safety data with use of the mathematical model of human cardiomyocytes operating at the virtual healthy population level. LVPWd was assumed to be equivalent to the length of one-dimensional string of virtual cardiomyocyte cells which was presented, as other physiological factors, to be a parameter influencing the simulated pseudo-ECG (pseudoelectrocardiogram), QTcF and \DeltaQTcF, both native and modified by exemplar drug (disopyramide) after IKrI_{Kr} current disruption. Simulation results support positive correlation between the LVPWd and QTcF/\DeltaQTc. Developed models allow more detailed description of the virtual population and thus inter-individual variability influence on the drug cardiac safet
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