1,194 research outputs found

    XRMA analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis of dental enamel from human permanent teeth exposed to hydrogen peroxide of varying pH

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    Background: This in vitro investigation shows how 3.3% H2 O2 , at different pH-values affects the enamel. Material and Methods: A number of fifteen human premolars were used. The enamel of the coronal half in six of the teeth, were exposed by H2 O2 . Nine teeth were prepared to enamel powder. The enamel was exposed to 3.3% H2 O2 , at six different pH-values (pH range 4.5 - 7.0). Analyses of the topography of enamel performed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the chemical composition of enamel by X-ray microanalysis (XRMA). X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysed the crystallinity in enamel powder . Results: The exposure to H2 O2 at pH5.5 resulted in a decrease of O in the exposed enamel, and changes in C:P, Ca:C, Ca:P and Ca:O were observed. The H2 O2 2 did not affect the unit cell parameters, but the signal-to-noise level was increased for slightly acidic or neutral solutions. The unit cell parameters decreased in the acidic solutions. Conclusions: The exposure to H2 O2 at varying pH values affect the enamel with two different mechanisms. One effect is the oxidation of the organic or bioorganic matter in the hydroxyapatite matrix, due to the use of 3.3% H2 O2 . The other effect is due to the current pH of the H2 O2 , since the structure of the hydroxyapatite starts to erode when the pH<5.5

    Determining the Mass for a Light Gravitino

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    Gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking scenarios with an ultra-light gravitino of mass m_{3/2}=1-10 eV are very interesting, since there is no cosmological gravitino problem. We propose a new experimental determination of the gravitino mass for such an ultra-light gravitino, by measuring a branching ratio of two decay modes of sleptons.Comment: 9 pages, 12 figure

    Optimal-observable Analysis of Possible Non-standard Top-quark Couplings in pp -> t t-bar X -> l^+ X'

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    Possible non-standard top-quark interactions with the gluon and the W boson induced by SU(3) X SU(2) X U(1) gauge-invariant dimension-6 effective operators are studied for hadron-collider experiments. Current limits on top-gluon couplings are presented by using the latest experimental data of t t-bar productions at the Tevatron and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The optimal-observable procedure is applied to the charged-lepton distributions in p p -> t t-bar X -> l^+ X' (l = e or mu) at the LHC in order to estimate the expected statistical uncertainties in measurements of those non-standard top-gluon and top-W couplings that contribute to this process in the leading order.Comment: 16 pages, 1 figure, Discussion of stabilities in estimating statistical errors and related one reference added. Final version (to appear in Phys. Lett. B

    Initial management of potential occult scaphoid fracture in Australasia

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    AIM: To characterise current management of adult patients with possible occult scaphoid fracture in Australasian emergency departments. METHODS: Internet-based survey of Directors of Emergency Medicine Training throughout Australasia. Data collected included the most common management used in ED for patients with possible occult scaphoid fracture and whether there was a guideline regarding management of such cases. Data are reported as descriptive statistics. RESULTS: 61 responses were received (response rate 73%). The most common management reported was immobilisation in a backslab (23, 38%) or full cast (19, 32%) with clinical assessment and re-X-ray in 7-10 days. CT scan within 7 days was used by 9 (15%), bone scan within 7 days by 6 (10%) and MRI within 7 days by 3 (5%). Very few sites were using same day/next day CT or MRI. Eighty-three percent of sites reported not having a guideline/protocol for this condition. CONCLUSION: The traditional approach to management of possible occult scaphoid fracture of immobilisation with re-X-ray at 7-10 days remains the most commonly used in Australasia, despite evidence that this is probably over-treatment with significant consequences for patients. The place of advanced imaging for investigation of potential scaphoid fractures requires further research

    Search for anomalous top-gluon couplings at LHC revisited

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    Through top-quark pair productions at LHC, we study possible effects of nonstandard top-gluon couplings yielded by SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) invariant dimension-6 effective operators. We calculate the total cross section and also some distributions for p p -> t tbar X as functions of two anomalous-coupling parameters, i.e., the chromoelectric and chromomagnetic moments of the top, which are constrained by the total cross section sigma(p pbar -> t tbar X) measured at Tevatron. We find that LHC might give us some chances to observe sizable effects induced by those new couplings.Comment: One comment and related two refs. added. Final version (to appear in Eur.Phys.J. C

    Higgs production as a probe of anomalous top couplings

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    The LHC may be currently seeing the first hints of the Higgs boson. The dominant production mode for the Higgs at the LHC involves a top-quark loop. An accurate measurement of Higgs production cross-sections and decay widths can thus be used to obtain limits on anomalous top couplings. We find that such an exercise could potentially yield constraints that are stronger than those derived from low-energy observables as well as direct bounds expected from the top pair-production process.Comment: Version published in JHE

    Preparedness and Response to Pediatric COVID-19 in European Emergency Departments : A Survey of the REPEM and PERUKI Networks

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    Publisher Copyright: ¬© 2020 American College of Emergency Physicians Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.Study objective: We aim to describe the variability and identify gaps in preparedness and response to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in European emergency departments (EDs) caring for children. Methods: A cross-sectional point-prevalence survey was developed and disseminated through the pediatric emergency medicine research networks for Europe (Research in European Pediatric Emergency Medicine) and the United Kingdom and Ireland (Paediatric Emergency Research in the United Kingdom and Ireland). We aimed to include 10 EDs for countries with greater than 20 million inhabitants and 5 EDs for less populated countries, unless the number of eligible EDs was less than 5. ED directors or their delegates completed the survey between March 20 and 21 to report practice at that time. We used descriptive statistics to analyze data. Results: Overall, 102 centers from 18 countries (86% response rate) completed the survey: 34% did not have an ED contingency plan for pandemics and 36% had never had simulations for such events. Wide variation on personal protective equipment (PPE) items was shown for recommended PPE use at pretriage and for patient assessment, with 62% of centers experiencing shortage in one or more PPE items, most frequently FFP2 and N95 masks. Only 17% of EDs had negative-pressure isolation rooms. Coronavirus disease 2019‚Äďpositive ED staff was reported in 25% of centers. Conclusion: We found variation and identified gaps in preparedness and response to the coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic across European referral EDs for children. A lack in early availability of a documented contingency plan, provision of simulation training, appropriate use of PPE, and appropriate isolation facilities emerged as gaps that should be optimized to improve preparedness and inform responses to future pandemics.publishersversionPeer reviewe

    Measurement of the Dipion Mass Spectrum in X(3872) -> J/Psi Pi+ Pi- Decays

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    We measure the dipion mass spectrum in X(3872)--> J/Psi Pi+ Pi- decays using 360 pb-1 of pbar-p collisions at 1.96 TeV collected with the CDF II detector. The spectrum is fit with predictions for odd C-parity (3S1, 1P1, and 3DJ) charmonia decaying to J/Psi Pi+ Pi-, as well as even C-parity states in which the pions are from Rho0 decay. The latter case also encompasses exotic interpretations, such as a D0-D*0Bar molecule. Only the 3S1 and J/Psi Rho hypotheses are compatible with our data. Since 3S1 is untenable on other grounds, decay via J/Psi Rho is favored, which implies C=+1 for the X(3872). Models for different J/Psi-Rho angular momenta L are considered. Flexibility in the models, especially the introduction of Rho-Omega interference, enable good descriptions of our data for both L=0 and 1.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figures -- Submitted to Phys. Rev. Let
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