39,405 research outputs found

    Impact of Organic Farming on Yield and Quality of BASMATI Rice and Soil Properties

    Get PDF
    The management of soil organic matter is critical to maintain a productive organic farming system. No one source of nutrient usually suffices to maintain productivity and quality control in organic system. In addition, the inputs to supplement nutrient avail-ability are often not uniform presenting additional challenges in meeting the nutrient requirement of crops in organic systems. With this concept, a field experiment was conducted at the research farm of Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India during 2003-06 in rice-wheat-green gram cropping system. In this experiment, different treatments comprising organic amendments such as Blue Green Algae (BGA) 15kg/ha, Azolla 1.0 tonne/ha, Vermicompost and Farm Yard Manure (FYM) 5.0 tonne/ha each applied alone or in combination were tested in organic crop production. These treatments were compared with absolute control (N0P0K0) and recommended dose of chemical fertilizer (N80P40K40). In wheat crop Azotobacter replaced Azolla, but other treatments remained same. For rice, a scented variety ‘Pusa Basmati 1’ and for wheat and green gram HYVs were taken. Biomass of green gram was incorporated in soil after picking of pods and wheat was sown using zero tillage practice. The obser-vations on grain yield, contents of Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu in rice grains, insect pest inci-dence, soil nutrients and microbial activity were taken. Results revealed a significant enhancement in grain yield of rice over absolute control due to the application of different organic amendments applied alone or in combina-tions. Rice grain yield increased by 114 to 116.8% over absolute control when all the 4 organic amendments were applied altogether. The rice grain yield (4.0 t ha-1) obtained under combined application of four organic amendments was at par with the yield recorded under recommended dose of chemical fertilizer application. An interesting observation recorded was that there was no serious attack of any insect pest or dis-ease in organically grown crop. Soil microbial population (Actinomycetes, Bacteria, Fungi and BGA) enhanced due to the application of organic amendments in compari-son to absolute control as well as recommended fertilizer application that in turn re-sulted in a notable enhancement in soil dehydrogenase and phosphatase enzyme activity. Soil organic carbon and available phosphorus contents were also found to be significantly increased due to organic farming practice over control as well as chemical fertilizer application. Rice grain analysis for nutrients viz. Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu showed a significant increase in Fe and Mn content in the treatments having 2 or more organic amendments over control. Zn and Cu content also increased but the increment was significant with combined application of 3 or 4 organic amendments. The study revealed that addition of four organic amendments viz. BGA, Azolla, FYM and Vermicompost could give the optimum yield (4.05 t/ha) of organic Basmati rice and improve grain and soil quality

    High Purcell factor photonic crystal cavities for single photon sources

    Get PDF

    Observation of magnetization reversal and negative magnetization in a double perovskite compound Sr2YbRuO6

    Full text link
    Detailed magnetic properties of the compound Sr2YbRuO6 are presented here. The compound belongs to the family of double perovskites forming a monoclinic structure. Magnetization meas-urements reveal clear evidence for two components of magnetic ordering aligned opposite to each other, leading to a magnetization reversal, compensation temperature (T* = 34 K) and neg-ative magnetization at low temperatures and low magnetic fields. Heat capacity measurements corroborate the presence of two components in the magnetic ordering and a noticeable third anomaly at low temperatures (~15 K) which cannot be attributed the Schottky effect. The calcu-lated magnetic entropy is substantially lower than that expected for the ground states of the or-dered moments of Ru5+ and Yb3+, indicating the presence of large crystal field effects and/ or in-complete magnetic ordering and/or magnetic frustrations well above the magnetic ordering. An attempt is made to explain the magnetization reversal within the frameworks of available models.Comment: 15 pages text, 6 figures Journal-ref: J.Phys.:Condens.Matter 20(2008)23520

    The dependence of the estimated luminosities of ULX on spectral models

    Full text link
    Data from {\it Chandra} observations of thirty nearby galaxies were analyzed and 365 X-ray point sources were chosen whose spectra were not contaminated by excessive diffuse emission and not affected by photon pile up. The spectra of these sources were fitted using two spectral models (an absorbed power-law and a disk blackbody) to ascertain the dependence of estimated parameters on the spectral model used. It was found that the cumulative luminosity function depends on the choice of the spectral model, especially for luminosities >1040> 10^{40} ergs/s. In accordance with previous results, a large number (80\sim 80) of the sources have luminosities >1039> 10^{39} ergs/s (Ultra-Luminous X-ray sources) with indistinguishable average spectral parameters (inner disk temperature 1\sim 1 keV and/or photon index Γ2\Gamma \sim 2) with those of the lower luminosities ones. After considering foreground stars and known background AGN,we identify four sources whose minimum luminosity exceed 104010^{40} ergs/s, and call them Extremely Luminous X-ray sources (ELX). The spectra of these sources are in general better represented by the disk black body model than the power-law one. These ELX can be grouped into two distinct spectral classes. Two of them have an inner disk temperature of <0.5< 0.5 keV and hence are called ``supersoft'' ELX, while the other two have temperatures 1.3\gtrsim 1.3 keV and are called ``hard'' ELX. The estimated inner disk temperatures of the supersoft ELX are compatible with the hypothesis that they harbor intermediate size black holes, which are accreting at 0.5\sim 0.5 times their Eddington Luminosity. The radiative mechanism for hard ELX, seems to be Inverse Comptonization, which in contrast to standard black holes systems, is probably saturated.Comment: Accepted for publication in Astrophysical Journal. 9 pages. Complete long Tables 4 and 5 are given as tab4.tex and tab5.tex separatel
    corecore