10 research outputs found

    Luokanopettajakoulutuksen sis√§lt√∂j√§ ‚Äď Sis√§ll√∂nanalyysi viiden yliopiston opetussuunnitelmasta

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    Pro gradu -tutkielmani tavoitteena oli selvittää, miten opettajan osaamisen osaalueet tulevat esille eri yliopistojen luokanopettajakoulutuksen opetussuunnitelmissa. Euroopan komission laatimien tutkintotasovaatimusten mukaisesti korkeakoulututkintojen tasovaatimukset tulisivat olla yhteneväiset EU:n alueella ja yhtenä tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena olikin selvittää millaisia yhtäläisyyksiä ja eroja viiden yliopiston opetussuunnitelmien välillä on. Tutkimukseni aineisto koostui viiden yliopiston opetussuunnitelmien opintojaksojen tavoitteista. Tutkimuksessa mukana olleet yliopistot muodostavat Arctic Five yhteistyöverkoston, jonka tavoitteena on luoda yhteinen maisteriohjelma. Olen tutkinut opetussuunnitelmia teoriaohjaavan sisällönanalyysin keinoin ja tulkitsin tekstejä moniulotteisessa opettajan osaamisen mallissa eli MAP-mallissa (Metsäpelto, Poikkeus, Heikkilä, Heikkinen-Jokilahti, Husu, Laine, Lappalainen, Lähteenmäki, Mikkilä-Erdmann & Warinowski, 2020) esitettyihin osaamisalueisiin peilaten. Olen tutkinut opetussuunnitelmia sekä vertaillen ja eritellen että analysoiden niiden sisältöjä. Sisällönanalyysillä pyrin vastaamaan kysymykseen millaisia osaamisalueita opintojaksot tavoittelevat. Tutkimustuloksissa havaitsin viiden eri yliopiston luokanopettajakoulutuksen rakenteiden olevan pääpiirteittäin samankaltaiset. Kaikille luokanopettajaopiskelijoille yhteisten opintojaksojen tavoitteissa painotetaan kaikissa yliopistoissa samanlaisia opettajan osaamisen alueita. Eniten opetussuunnitelmien opintojaksojen tavoitteet painottivat opetuksen ja oppimisen tietoperustaa sekä kognitiivisia taitoja

    Plant Stanol Esters Reduce LDL (Low-Density Lipoprotein) Aggregation by Altering LDL Surface Lipids The BLOOD FLOW Randomized Intervention Study

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    OBJECTIVE: Plant stanol ester supplementation (2-3 g plant stanols/d) reduces plasma LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol concentration by 9% to 12% and is, therefore, recommended as part of prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In addition to plasma LDL-cholesterol concentration, also qualitative properties of LDL particles can influence atherogenesis. However, the effect of plant stanol ester consumption on the proatherogenic properties of LDL has not been studied. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Study subjects (n=90) were randomized to consume either a plant stanol ester-enriched spread (3.0 g plant stanols/d) or the same spread without added plant stanol esters for 6 months. Blood samples were taken at baseline and after the intervention. The aggregation susceptibility of LDL particles was analyzed by inducing aggregation of isolated LDL and following aggregate formation. LDL lipidome was determined by mass spectrometry. Binding of serum lipoproteins to proteoglycans was measured using a microtiter well-based assay. LDL aggregation susceptibility was decreased in the plant stanol ester group, and the median aggregate size after incubation for 2 hours decreased from 1490 to 620 nm,P=0.001. Plant stanol ester-induced decrease in LDL aggregation was more extensive in participants having body mass index CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of plant stanol esters decreases the aggregation susceptibility of LDL particles by modifying LDL lipidome. The resulting improvement of LDL quality may be beneficial for cardiovascular health. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01315964. GRAPHIC ABSTRACT: A graphic abstract is available for this article.Peer reviewe

    Arterial function, biomarkers, carcinoid syndrome and carcinoid heart disease in patients with small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours

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    Purpose Carcinoid heart disease (CHD) is a life-threatening complication of carcinoid syndrome (CS) characterised by tricuspid regurgitation (TR). However, there is an unmet need for earlier diagnosis of CHD. We cross-sectionally assessed the prevalence and potential predictive or diagnostic markers for CS and CHD in a contemporary cohort of patients with small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours (SI-NETs). Methods Biochemical characteristics, hepatic tumour load, measures of arterial and endothelial function, atherosclerosis, and transthoracic echocardiography were analysed in a prospective cross-sectional setting. Results Among the 65 patients studied, 29 (45%) had CS (CS+), and 3 (5%) CHD. CS+ was characterised by significantly higher hepatic tumour load, S-5-HIAA and fP-CgA, higher frequency of diarrhoea and flushing, and more frequent PRRT compared to CS- (for all, P < 0.05). Central systolic, central mean, and central end-systolic blood pressures were significantly higher in CS+ than in CS- (for all, P < 0.05). Subjects with grades 2-4 TR had higher hepatic tumour burden, fP-CgA, and S-5-HIAA compared to those with grades 0-1 TR, but measures of vascular function did not differ. fP-CgA (P = 0.017) and S-5-HIAA (P = 0.019) but not proBNP increased significantly according to the severity of TR. Conclusion Although CS is common, the prevalence of CHD was found to be lower in a contemporary cohort of SI-NET patients than previously anticipated. Measures of arterial or endothelial function or carotid atherosclerosis do not identify subjects with mild TR. Echocardiography remains the most sensitive means to diagnose CHD in CS patients with high tumour burden and elevated CgA and 5-HIAA.Peer reviewe
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