385 research outputs found

    Downlink calibration requirements for the TSUNAMI (II) adaptive antenna testbed

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    Network planning aspects of DS-CDMA with particular emphasis on soft handoff

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    An investigation of RAKE receiver operation in an urban environment for various spreading bandwidth allocations

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    Performance of the TSUNAMI (II) macrocellular field trial system using a dynamic interference source

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    TSUNAMI II active calibration system

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    Calibration architectures for use in UTRA adaptive antenna basestations

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    Use of an Outbred Rat Hepacivirus Challenge Model for Design and Evaluation of Efficacy of Different Immunization Strategies for Hepatitis C Virus

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    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The lack of immunocompetent small animal models for hepatitis C virus (HCV) has greatly hindered the development of effective vaccines. Using rodent hepacivirus (RHV), a homolog of HCV that shares many characteristics of HCV infection, we report the development and application of an RHV outbred rat model for HCV vaccine development. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Simian adenovirus (ChAdOx1) encoding a genetic immune enhancer (truncated shark class II invariant chain) fused to the nonstructural (NS) proteins NS3-NS5B from RHV (ChAd-NS) was used to vaccinate Sprague-Dawley rats, resulting in high levels of cluster of differentiation 8-positive (CD8+ ) T-cell responses. Following RHV challenge (using 10 or 100 times the minimum infectious dose), 42% of vaccinated rats cleared infection within 6-8 weeks, while all mock vaccinated controls became infected with high-level viremia postchallenge. A single, 7-fold higher dose of ChAd-NS increased efficacy to 67%. Boosting with ChAd-NS or with a plasmid encoding the same NS3-NS5B antigens increased efficacy to 100% and 83%, respectively. A ChAdOx1 vector encoding structural antigens (ChAd-S) was also constructed. ChAd-S alone showed no efficacy. Strikingly, when combined with ChAd-NS, ChAD-S produced 83% efficacy. Protection was associated with a strong CD8+ interferon gamma-positive recall response against NS4. Next-generation sequencing of a putative RHV escape mutant in a vaccinated rat identified mutations in both identified immunodominant CD8+ T-cell epitopes. CONCLUSIONS: A simian adenovirus vector vaccine strategy is effective at inducing complete protective immunity in the rat RHV model. The RHV Sprague-Dawley rat challenge model enables comparative testing of vaccine platforms and antigens and identification of correlates of protection and thereby provides a small animal experimental framework to guide the development of an effective vaccine for HCV in humans

    Heterozygous <em>COL17A1 </em>variants are a frequent cause of amelogenesis imperfecta

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    \ua9 Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2023. Re-use permitted under CC BY. Published by BMJ.Background: Collagen XVII is most typically associated with human disease when biallelic COL17A1 variants (&gt;230) cause junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB), a rare, genetically heterogeneous, mucocutaneous blistering disease with amelogenesis imperfecta (AI), a developmental enamel defect. Despite recognition that heterozygous carriers in JEB families can have AI, and that heterozygous COL17A1 variants also cause dominant corneal epithelial recurrent erosion dystrophy (ERED), the importance of heterozygous COL17A1 variants causing dominant non-syndromic AI is not widely recognised. Methods: Probands from an AI cohort were screened by single molecule molecular inversion probes or targeted hybridisation capture (both a custom panel and whole exome sequencing) for COL17A1 variants. Patient phenotypes were assessed by clinical examination and analyses of affected teeth. Results: Nineteen unrelated probands with isolated AI (no co-segregating features) had 17 heterozygous, potentially pathogenic COL17A1 variants, including missense, premature termination codons, frameshift and splice site variants in both the endo-domains and the ecto-domains of the protein. The AI phenotype was consistent with enamel of near normal thickness and variable focal hypoplasia with surface irregularities including pitting. Conclusion: These results indicate that COL17A1 variants are a frequent cause of dominantly inherited non-syndromic AI. Comparison of variants implicated in AI and JEB identifies similarities in type and distribution, with five identified in both conditions, one of which may also cause ERED. Increased availability of genetic testing means that more individuals will receive reports of heterozygous COL17A1 variants. We propose that patients with isolated AI or ERED, due to COL17A1 variants, should be considered as potential carriers for JEB and counselled accordingly, reflecting the importance of multidisciplinary care
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