234 research outputs found

    Gene variants with suicidal risk in a sample of subjects with chronic migraine and affective temperamental dysregulation

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    BACKGROUND: Risk factors for suicide are at least partially heritable and functional polymorphisms of targeted genes have been suggested to be implicated in the pathogenesis of this phenomenon. However, other studies examining the association between specific gene variants and suicide revealed inconsistent findings. We aims to evaluate the possible association between MAO-A3, CYP1A2*1F and GNB3 gene variants, hopelessness and suicidal risk in a sample of subjects with chronic migraine and affective temperamental dysregulation. METHODS: 56 women were genotyped for MAO-A3, CYP1A2*1F and GNB3 gene variants. Participants were also assessed using Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A), and the Suicidal History Self-Rating Screening Scale (SHSS). RESULTS: Patients with higher total scores on affective dysregulated temperaments are more likely to have higher BHS (11.27 +/- 5.54 vs. 5.73 +/- 3.81; t19.20 = -3.57; p = 9 indicating high levels of hopelessness. No association was found between MAO-A3, CYP1A2*1F and GNB3 gene variants and suicidal risk as assessed by BHS and SHSS. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not sustain the association between MAO-A3, CYP1A2*1F and GNB3 gene variants and increased suicidal risk in patients with chronic migraine and affective temperamental dysregulation. Further studies investigating the gene-environment interaction or focusing on other genetic risk factors involved in suicidal behaviour are needed

    Clinical applications of personalized medicine: a new paradigm and challenge

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    The personalized medicine is an emergent and rapidly developing method of clinical practice that uses new technologies to provide decisions in regard to the prediction, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease. The continue evolution of technology and the developments in molecular diagnostics and genomic analysis increased the possibility of an even more understanding and interpretation of the human genome and exome, allowing a "personalized" approach to clinical care, so that the concepts of "Systems Medicine" and "System Biology" are increasingly actual. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the personalized medicine about its indications and benefits, actual clinical applications and future perspectives as well as its issues and health care implications. It was made a careful review of the scientific literature on this field that highlighted the applicability and usefulness of this new medical approach as well as the fact that personalized medicine strategy is even more increasing in numerous fields of applications

    Changing the approach to anticoagulant therapy in older patients with multimorbidity using a precision medicine approach

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    The ageing of the world population has resulted in an increase in the number of older patients with multimorbid conditions receiving multiple therapies. This emerging clinical scenario poses new challenges, which are mostly related to the increased incidence of adverse effects. This translates into poor clinical care, reduced cost-effectiveness of drug therapies, and social isolation of multimorbid patients due to reduced autonomy. A strategy to address these emerging challenges could involve the personalization of therapies based on the clinical, molecular, and genetic characterization of multimorbid patients. Anticoagulation therapy is a feasible model to implement personalized medicine since it generally involves older multimorbid patients receiving multiple drugs. In this study, in patients with atrial fibrillation, the use of the new generation of anticoagulation therapy, i.e., direct oral anti-coagulants (DOACs), is based on a preliminary assessment of the molecular targets of DOACS and any possible drug–drug interactions. Then, the genetic polymorphism of enzymes metabolizing DOACs is studied. After DOAC prescription, its circulating levels are measured. Clinical data are being collected to assess whether this personalized approach improves the safety and efficacy profiles of anticoagulation therapy using DOACs, thereby reducing the costs of healthcare for ageing multimorbid patients

    Primary structure of a protease isoinhibitor from bovine spleen. A possible intermediate in the processing of the primary gene product.

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    Sequence studies on the protease isoinhibitor I isolated from bovine spleen have revealed that it consists of two molecular variants which differ only in the presence of an additional COOH-terminal residue, asparagine, in the less abundant form. The complete amino acid sequence shows that they are composed of 65 or 66 residues and predicts Mr of 7223 or 7338, respectively. The sequences correspond exactly to the 58-residue polypeptide chain of spleen isoinhibitor II plus NH2- and COOH-terminal extensions of 2 and 5 or 6 amino acid residues, respectively. Moreover the entire sequences are located within the 100-residue structure deduced from the mRNA and DNA sequences of the putative precursor. These data support the idea that the molecular variants of isoinhibitor I are either mature proteins with distinct functional roles, or intermediates in the multistage processing of the primary product of gene expression, which eventually leads to the mature protein, i.e. inhibitor II

    Validation of a small-size pooling approach targeting hospital surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 infection

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    Recent studies describing the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in pools of 5 to 32 samples reported false negative rates up to 10% for large groups, suggesting that smaller sample pools are a good compromise to increase sample processing capacity while maintaining test reliability. Since 5-sample pools were shown to efficiently detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA in RT-PCR assays, we chose to test and validate this approach using a highthroughput RNA extraction and amplification platform

    Short-term one-lung ventilation does not influence local inflammatory cytokine response after lung resection

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    Background: One-lung ventilation (OLV) is a ventilation procedure used for pulmonary resection which may results in lung injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the local inflammatory cytokine response from the dependent lung after OLV and its correlation to VT. The secondary aim was to evaluate the clinical outcome of each patient. Methods: Twenty-eight consecutive patients were enrolled. Ventilation was delivered in volume-controlled mode with a VT based on predicted body weight (PBW). 5 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and FiO20.5 were applied. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed in the dependent lung before and after OLV. The levels of pro-inflammatory interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial growth factor (EGF), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukins (IL-2, IL-4, IL-10) and interferon (IFN-γ), were evaluated. Subgroup analysis: to analyze the VT setting during OLV, all patients were ventilated within a range of 5-10 mL/kg. Thirteen patients, classified as a conventional ventilation (CV) subgroup, received 8-10 mL/kg, while 15 patients, classified as a protective ventilation (PV) subgroup, received 5-7 mL/kg. Results: Cytokine BAL levels after surgery showed no significant increase after OLV, and no significant differences were recorded between the two subgroups. The mean duration of OLV was 64.44±21.68 minutes. No postoperative respiratory complications were recorded. The mean length of stay was for 4.00±1.41 days in the PV subgroup and 4.45±2.07 days in the CV group; no statistically significant differences were recorded between the two subgroups (P=0.511). Conclusions: Localized inflammatory cytokine response after OLV was not influenced by the use of different VT. Potentially, the application of PEEP in both ventilation strategies and the short duration of OLV could prevent postoperative complications

    Severe and prolonged myelosuppression during concomitant temozolomide and radiotherapy treatment in a patient with glioblastoma multiforme

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    Aims: We describe the case of a patient with glioblastoma (GBM) who developed severe and prolonged myelosuppression during concomitant daily temozolomide (TMZ) and radiotherapy (RT) treatment. Analysis of polymorphisms in genes correlated with TMZ-induced myelotoxicity was also performed. Presentation of the Case: A 67–year-old man with diagnosis of GBM undergoing concomitant RT-TMZ treatment developed severe and prolonged pancytopenia that led to discontinuation of TMZ and required frequent platelet and red cells transfusions. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, quinone 1 (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1) was carried out. Both SNPs were found to be wild-type. Discussion: TMZ is an oral alkylating agent used for the treatment of glioblastoma. TMZ is usually considered well tolerated and safe, with nausea and mild myelosuppression being the most common side effects. However, severe haematologic adverse events have been also reported. Recently, there has been growing interest in gene polymorphisms that might be associated with an increased risk of hematologic toxicity. Conclusion: Myelosuppression is a side effect that can occur relatively early during concomitant TMZ treatment and can negatively impact on patient’s quality of life. Further studies are warranted to find out a correlation between genetic factors and the occurrence of severe hematologic toxicity

    Fatigue in Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis: The Role of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase (IDO) Activity, Interleukin-6, and Muscularity

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    Fatigue is a frequent symptom in hemodialysis (HD), and the indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) metabolic trap has been hypothesized in the pathogenesis of fatigue. The association between IDO activity according to fatigue and its relationship with muscle mass and function in HD patients was verified. Chronic HD patients were considered, and fatigue was assessed. The plasma kynurenines and tryptophan ratio (Kyn/Trp), as surrogate of IDO activity, and interleukin (IL)-6 were measured. Muscularity was assessed by BIA and muscle strength by hand-grip dynamometer. 50 HD patients were enrolled, and fatigue was present in 24% of the cohort. Patients with fatigue showed higher Kyn/Trp (p = 0.005), were older (p = 0.007), and IL-6 levels resulted higher than in non-fatigue patients (p < 0.001). HD patients with fatigue showed lower intracellular water (surrogate of muscle mass) (p < 0.001), as well as lower hand grip strength (p = 0.02). The Kyn/Trp ratio positively correlated with IL-6 and ECW/ICW (p = 0.004 and p = 0.014). By logistic regression analysis, higher ICW/h(2) was associated with lower odds of fatigue (OR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.73). In conclusion, our cohort fatigue was associated with a higher Kyn/Trp ratio, indicating a modulation of IDO activity. The Kyn/Trp ratio correlated with IL-6, suggesting a potential role of IDO and inflammation in inducing fatigue and changes in muscularity

    Degradation rate of 5-fluorouracil in metastatic colorectal cancer. A new predictive outcome biomarker?

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    BACKGROUND: 5-FU based chemotherapy is the most common first line regimen used for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Identification of predictive markers of response to chemotherapy is a challenging approach for drug selection. The present study analyzes the predictive role of 5-FU degradation rate (5-FUDR) and genetic polymorphisms (MTHFR, TSER, DPYD) on survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genetic polymorphisms of MTHFR, TSER and DPYD, and the 5-FUDR of homogenous patients with mCRC were retrospectively studied. Genetic markers and the 5-FUDR were correlated with clinical outcome. RESULTS: 133 patients affected by mCRC, treated with fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy from 2009 to 2014, were evaluated. Patients were classified into three metabolic classes, according to normal distribution of 5-FUDR in more than 1000 patients, as previously published: poor-metabolizer (PM) with 5-FU-DR ≤ 0,85 ng/ml/106 cells/min (8 pts); normal metabolizer with 0,85 < 5-FU-DR < 2,2 ng/ml/106 cells/min (119 pts); ultra-rapid metabolizer (UM) with 5-FU-DR ≥ 2,2 ng/ml/106 cells/min (6 pts). PM and UM groups showed a longer PFS respect to normal metabolizer group (14.5 and 11 months respectively vs 8 months; p = 0.029). A higher G3-4 toxicity rate was observed in PM and UM, respect to normal metabolizer (50% in both PM and UM vs 18%; p = 0.019). No significant associations between genes polymorphisms and outcomes or toxicities were observed. CONCLUSION: 5-FUDR seems to be significantly involved in predicting survival of patients who underwent 5-FU based CHT for mCRC. Although our findings require confirmation in large prospective studies, they reinforce the concept that individual genetic variation may allow personalized selection of chemotherapy to optimize clinical outcomes

    Man vs. machine: comparison of pharmacogenetic expert counselling with a clinical medication support system in a study with 200 genotyped patients

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    Background: Medication problems such as strong side effects or inefficacy occur frequently. At our university hospital, a consultation group of specialists takes care of patients suffering from medication problems. Nevertheless, the counselling of poly-treated patients is complex, as it requires the consideration of a large network of interactions between drugs and their targets, their metabolizing enzymes, and their transporters, etc. Purpose This study aims to check whether a score-based decision-support system (1) reduces the time and effort and (2) suggests solutions at the same quality level. Patients and methods: A total of 200 multimorbid, poly-treated patients with medication problems were included. All patients were considered twice: manually, as clinically established, and using the Drug-PIN decision-support system. Besides diagnoses, lab data (kidney, liver), phenotype (age, gender, BMI, habits), and genotype (genetic variants with actionable clinical evidence I or IIa) were considered, to eliminate potentially inappropriate medications and to select individually favourable drugs from existing medication classes. The algorithm is connected to automatically updated knowledge resources to provide reproducible up-to-date decision support. Results: The average turnaround time for manual poly-therapy counselling per patient ranges from 3 to 6 working hours, while it can be reduced to ten minutes using Drug-PIN. At the same time, the results of the novel computerized approach coincide with the manual approach at a level of > 90%. The holistic medication score can be used to find favourable drugs within a class of drugs and also to judge the severity of medication problems, to identify critical cases early and automatically. Conclusion: With the computerized version of this approach, it became possible to score all combinations of all alternative drugs from each class of drugs administered ("personalized medication landscape ") and to identify critical patients even before problems are reported ("medication alert"). Careful comparison of manual and score-based results shows that the incomplete manual consideration of genetic specialties and pharmacokinetic conflicts is responsible for most of the (minor) deviations between the two approaches. The meaning of the reduction of working time for experts by about 2 orders of magnitude should not be underestimated, as it enables practical application of personalized medicine in clinical routine
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