114 research outputs found

    Treatment of Acute Diarrhoea: Past and Now

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    Context: Since ancient times diarrhoea has been a highly fatal disease and even today diarrhoea, the topic of this review, is a problem affecting millions of people around the world despite the efforts of governments and professionals from the medical area. Worldwide the most common cause of children’s death is diarrhoea. Evidence Acquisition: Diarrhoea disorders generally appear with watery stools, sometimes mixed with blood, accompanied by abdominal pain, vomiting and fever. The symptoms depend on the content and distribution of body fluid, daily water requirements and physiological water loss in connection with age through sweating, urination and breathing, the degree of fluid and electrolyte loss in the liquid stool. Results: Several effective interventions have been introduced as part of diarrhoea management in the last two decades such as oral rehydration solution, zinc supplementation, vitamin A supplementation and oral administration of antibiotics and vaccines. To reduce the mortality rate, control of safe drinking water, good sanitation and vaccination against typhoid and cholera are recommended, especially in high-risk populations. Probiotics have been proposed, after more than a half of century, as additional therapy in the treatment of acute diarrhoea. Several probiotic strains showed benefit in meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials. Conclusions: Due to the high level of evidence available, the term “oral bacteriotherapy”, used for decades in the prevention and therapy of gastroenteritis in the growing age and adults, has expanded, but probiotics are acquiring significant scientific value based on the results from human trials. The future of probiotics depends on further explanation/elucidation of basic mechanisms, allowing scientists and physicians to maximize their health benefits

    In vitro modulatory effects of colonic microflora by olive oil iridoids.

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    The Mediterranean diet, rich in fruits, vegetables, and grains as well as olive oil and olives, has been associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease and cancer. The beneficial role of olive oil has been related to its fatty acid composition and the presence of phenolic compounds. The present research aimed to study the biological activity of some olive oil iridoids, such as hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, as microbial inhibitors and their in vitro effects on modulation of human intestinal microflora. Among the tested strains, Bifidobacterium longum , Lactobacillus salivarius , and Bacteroides vulgatus showed the highest sensitivity to the tested compounds; however, the inhibitory effect of iridoids seemed to be more effective when a mix of olive oil iridoids, instead of pure hydroxytyrosol, was used. The fermentation experiments showed that olive oil iridoids modulate the intestinal microflora, leading to a higher production of total short chain fatty acids and in particular of butyrate. These are important conditions well known to be associated with a protective effect against colon cancer development. Key words: olive oil iridoids, hydroxytyrosol, intestinal microflora, semi-continuous culture syste

    In vitro evaluation on HeLa cells of protective mechanisms of probiotic lactobacilli against Candida clinical isolates

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    Aims: To characterize in vitro the ability of human Lactobacillus strains to inhibit the adhesion, to displace and to compete with clinically isolated Candida strains. Methods and Results: Three types of assays were performed to determine the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 319, Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501, Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502 and a specific probiotic combination (SYNBIO) on adhesion of Candida pathogens to HeLa cells: blockage by exclusion (lactobacilli and HeLa followed by pathogens), competition (lactobacilli, HeLa and pathogens together) and displacement (pathogens and HeLa followed by the addition of lactobacilli). Bacterial adhesion to HeLa was quantified by microscopy after May-Grunwald/Giemsa stain. The inhibition results highlight a significant (P < 0.05) competition of the considered probiotics against all the Candida strains. The results suggest that the probiotic strains used in this study could prevent colonization of the urogenital tract by relevant pathogens such as Candida strains through barrier and interference mechanisms (mainly displacement and competition), but the degree of inhibition of adhesion was bacterial strain-dependent. Conclusions: The results support the potential of these Lactobacillus probiotic strains as anti-infective agents in the vagina and encourage further studies about their capacity to prevent and manage urogenital tract infections in females. Significance and Impact of the Study: To optimize the defensive properties of the vaginal microbiota, improving the health of many women by probiotic intervention

    Changes on fecal microbiota in rats exposed to permethrin during postnatal development

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    Alteration of the gut microbiota through diet and environmental contaminants may disturb the mammalian digestive system, leading to various diseases. Because most exposure to environmentally pyrethroid pesticides such as permethrin (PERM) occurs through the diet, the commensal gut microbiota is likely to be exposed to PERM. The study aimed at evaluating the effect of low-dose exposure to PERM in early life on the composition of fecal microbiota in rats. Over a 4-month follow-up period, fecal microbiota and short-chain fatty acids were measured in order to identify possible differences between PERM-treated rats and controls. Further in vitro antimicrobial experiments were conducted to establish the antibacterial activity of PERM against different strains to obtain Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations. The main finding focused on the reduced abundance of Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas species, increased Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacillus in PERM-treated rats compared to controls. Changes of acetic and propionic acid levels were registered in PERM-treated group. From in vitro studies, PERM showed higher antibacterial activity against beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus paracasei, while to inhibit potential pathogens as Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli PERM concentration needed to be increased. In summary, exposure to PERM could affect the fecal microbiota and could be a crucial factor contributing to the development of diseases

    Pilot-scale Production and Viability Analysis of Freeze-Dried Probiotic Bacteria Using Different Protective Agents

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    The functional food industry requires an improvement of probiotic strain stability during storage, especially when they are stored at room temperature. In this study, the viability of freeze-dried Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501® and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® using different protective agents (i.e., glycerine, mannitol, sorbitol, inulin, dextrin, Crystalean®) was determined and compared with semi skimmed milk (SSM) control. No significant differences were observed between the tested protectants and the control (SSM) during storage at refrigerated conditions. During storage at room temperature, only glycerine was found to stabilize viability better than other tested substances
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