11 research outputs found

    Green economy process modelling

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    The green economy, bioeconomy and circular economy have become mainstream topics in academia and policy making as key sustainability avenues (D'Amato et al. 2017) and as some of the key themes and most important tools for policymaking (Lithido & Righnini 2013). There is a need for effective and versatile methods and tools (e.g. indicators) to collect data to help the move towards a Finnish bioeconomy strategy (2014), and to achieve a green Economy and more sustainable future. Accord-ing to the Finnish Bioeconomy Strategy (2014) especially rural development is seen as one of the most important drivers of the bioeconomy because of the increasing demand for biomass produced mainly in rural areas and relating to the development of those rural areas. However, the amount, quality and scalability of indicators for measuring the green economy is still new, and narrow, focus-ing mainly on a local level. In the previous "Sustainable and Decentralised Operating Model for Green Economy" project, a formulation of preliminary green economy operational models, indicators and road maps for Saija and H√§meenkyl√§ rural villages in Lapland were carried out (Timonen et al. 2017). In this project the work was continued, creating a model for a new type of bioeconomy. This was done by complement-ing the green economy model and biogas production model with new mechanisms (including the food sector and new types of energy) and in finding multi market and business opportunities. An important part of this modelling was to further develop the energy and food sector indicators started in the previous project and complement these with a tourism system and finally integrate these into a more comprehensive symbiosis. The purpose of modelling the green economy in this study is to promote the bioeconomy of the case areas, among others, through the sustainable exploitation of ecosystem services. A decentralised, sustainable and competitive approach to the transition to a green economy is based on network thinking and the sustainable use of natural resources now and in the future. In this project, sector specific analyses (that were also started in the previous project) were tak-en further to create a form of symbiosis modelling. Bioeconomics cannot be based solely on sector-specific economic analysis (food, energy or tourism), but must cross borders into different sectors of demand and entrepreneurship, combined with the different demands of the bioeconomy. Multi market symbiosis and businesses modelling will lead to bioeconomy-based business mod-els, by developing them together with the actors and supplementing them with indicators of the green economy, providing a perspective on overall sustainability. Business models are the key project measures of current government programmes (e.g. for nutrient recycling, employment and entre-preneurship, profitable food production, circular economy, short chains and distribution channels, new business models). Green economy indicators are presented as local level indicators based on a regional scale for Lapland. The aim these indicators is to measure and verify the green economy transition process in the area and therefore these indicators are eventually meant to be utilised for the whole period of the green economy transition process (e.g. from the present time to the target state). For energy and food indicators, the data collection and assessment was already done in the previous project. In this project we developed these indicators further by reflecting them in meeting the green economy framework with three green economy paradigms (resource efficiency, ecosystem resilience and social equity). In addition, as the green economy is a sustainability concept, all of these paradigms will have ecological, economic and social consequences. For the preliminary development work on tour-ism indicators, many of the actual indicator calculations were not done or were not yet possible due to the lack of local data, the immaterial nature of the services, subjective perception and also multi-ple different nature based tourism concepts and interpretations. Achieving ‚Äúsustainable tourism‚ÄĚ is a continuous process and it requires constant monitoring of impacts, introducing the necessary pre-ventive and/or corrective measures whenever necessary. In addition to system level indicators, we present the socio-demographic indicators presenting the overall area level baseline for human and demographic potential and these are to be reflected in the changes in system-level indicators though there might be some correlations to be found between green growth on the system level and area level. The preliminary work for developing symbiosis indicators was challenging for measuring syner-gies between energy and food systems, as well as tourism and the ecosystem boundaries, and in this project a preliminary proposal for these measuring indicators was done. The first step achieved during this development work was to develop indicators measuring the ecological material, energy and service flows between the sectors involved. Presenting the ideas and operating models for the use of new forms of energy and transferring this knowledge to the village community was a challenging task. Major changes in technology alone require that the community receives new information from a trusted source, in addition to acquiring this knowledge, reorganising numerous processes, and creating new products or services as Lund (2014) testified in his own Choice Awareness theory. In our current study it was notable that the villagers' concerns about the future of the village and the survival of the village have motivated them to join meetings and discussions. The possible transition from fossil-based energy to self-produced bioenergy has also opened business opportunities for the villagers. Sustainability has been the driving theme for village meetings and planning new products, services and businesses. The aim has been to reduce the village's capital outflow. The first step is to establish a bioenergy plant and start producing bioenergy from local raw materials and to satisfy the internal need for energy. Energy self-sufficiency is the first major contributor to the changing future image of the village. In the next step, raw materials and products from these areas will be further processed with their own energy. Bio energy production is also a key point when building a sustainable symbiosis for various actors both in tourism and farming in rural areas. We thank the villagers of H√§meenkyl√§, Saija and Tanhua for their patience and participation in the project.201

    Vihreän talouden hajautetun, kestävän ja kilpailukykyisen toimintamallin määrittely ja pilotointi : Kokeilualustana Agrokeskus-toimintamalli

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    2., korjattu painos julkaisusta Luonnonvara- ja biotalouden tutkimus 4/2017. Se on ladattavissa maksutta osoitteesta: http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-326-528-8Vihre√§ talous perustuu tehokkaaseen kest√§v√§n kehityksen tavoitteiden mukaiseen luonnonvarojen ja energian k√§ytt√∂√∂n (United Nations 2012). T√§m√§n hankkeen tavoitteena oli luoda kyl√§tason hajautettu, kest√§v√§ ja kilpailukykyinen toimintamalli vihre√§√§n talouteen siirtymiselle, joka perustuu verkostoajatteluun ja luonnonvarojen kest√§v√§√§n k√§ytt√∂√∂n. Hankkeessa toteutettiin positiivisen kierteen ohjelmaa, jonka avulla k√§ynnistettiin paikallisia, kyl√§tason biotalouden pilottihankkeita ja kehitt√§misprosesseja. Hankkeen l√§ht√∂kohtana oli l√∂yt√§√§ paikallisten asukkaiden n√§kemys kest√§v√§n kehitt√§misen suunnasta ja keinoista sek√§ paikallisen resurssipohjan (luonnonvara ja ihmiset) hy√∂dynt√§minen. Keskeiseksi kehitt√§misen toimenpiteeksi tunnistettiin kyl√§n oman, uusiutuvan energiantuotannon lis√§√§minen. Kyl√§tapaamisien j√§lkeen kartoitettiin kylien uusiutuvat luonnonvararesurssit, energiataseet, ihmisresurssit (eli halukkaat toimijat ja osaaminen) sek√§ laskettiin kylien p√§√§omapako, joka syntyy tuontienergian my√∂t√§. Lis√§ksi hankkeessa luotiin kest√§vyyteen perustuvat arviointikriteerit (indikaattorit) mallin toteutukselle. Hankkeen alussa j√§rjestetyiss√§ kyl√§tapaamisissa luotiin kylien vihre√§n talouden visio vuoteen 2020 asti sek√§ selvitettiin kyl√§l√§isten n√§kemys alueen nykytilasta, haasteista ja keinoista vision saavuttamiseksi. Kyl√§tasolla tutkimuksen tulokset hy√∂dynsiv√§t paikallisia asukkaita monella tapaa. Ensinn√§kin kyl√§l√§iset havahtuivat huomaamaan p√§√§omapaon, joka valuu ulos alueelta fossiilisten polttoaineiden muodossa. Laskelmien mukaan liki 50 % k√§ytett√§viss√§ olevista rahoista menee fossiilisen energian ostoon. Toiseksi he ymm√§rsiv√§t oman alueensa valtavat luonnonvararesurssit sek√§ mahdollisuudet niiden hy√∂dynt√§miseen tavalla, joka mahdollistaa kyl√§n elinvoimaisuuden lis√§√§misen ja hy√∂dytt√§√§ koko kyl√§√§. Kyl√§l√§isten k√§sitys omista kyvyist√§ ja mahdollisuuksista lis√§√§ntyiv√§t paikallisen energialaitossuunnitelmien ja niihin liittyvien liiketoimintamallien my√∂t√§. Hankkeen aikana havaittiinkin, ett√§ k√§sitys yhteisist√§ vaikutusmahdollisuuksista kyl√§n kehitt√§misess√§ lis√§√§ntyi. Lis√§ksi huomattiin tarve lains√§√§d√§nn√∂n muutoksille, lupaprosessien kevent√§miselle sek√§ erityisesti investointeihin ja kokeiluihin tarvittavien maakunnallisten tukien merkitys. Paikallisella kyl√§tasolla kehitetyt vihre√§n talouden indikaattorit (ekosysteemipalveluiden kest√§v√§n k√§yt√∂n ja alueen yhteiskunnalliset indikaattorit) todentavat suuntaa kohti kyl√§n visiota eli vihre√§n talouden kasvua. Indikaattorien tuomaa tietoa pystyt√§√§n hy√∂dynt√§m√§√§n jatkossa kyl√§n kehitystoimenpiteiden aikana ja kyl√§tason p√§√§t√∂ksenteon tukena. Ekosysteemipalvelut (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005, Saastamoinen ym. 2014) on uusi merkitt√§v√§ yhteiskunnan ja luonnon kest√§v√§√§ vuorovaikutusta edist√§v√§ kokonaisvaltainen l√§hestymistapa. Jotta ekosysteemipalveluiden tuottamia palveluita ja niiden mahdollisuuksia pystytt√§isiin kest√§v√§sti hy√∂dynt√§m√§√§n osana vihre√§√§ taloutta, tarvitaan nykyist√§ enemm√§n systemaattisesti seurattua tietoa erityisesti s√§√§tely- ja tukipalveluista. Ne m√§√§ritt√§v√§t ekosysteemipalvelujen dynamiikkaa ja palautumiskyky√§, ja palvelujen dynamiikan systemaattinen tunnistaminen avaa tien niiden potentiaalin selvitt√§miseen. Vihre√§n talouden toimintamalli ja sen uudet rakenteet (Agrohub), avoin data ja digitalisaation eteneminen luovat tulevaisuudessa pohjaa uudentyyppiseen indikaattority√∂h√∂n. Indikaattoreita suunniteltaessa ja valittaessa on oleellista l√∂yt√§√§ mittareita, joista on mahdollista jatkossa ker√§t√§ seurantatietoa. Hajautettuihin j√§rjestelmiin kohdistuvien mittareiden tulee rakentaa tietoa hierarkkisesti yritys- ja paikalliselta tasolta alueelliselle tasolle ja edelleen kansalliselle tasolle. Paikallisen tason indikaattoreilta tulee edellytt√§√§ herkkyytt√§ ep√§lineaaristen muutosten osoittamiseen ja mieluiten my√∂s niiden ennustamiseen (vihre√§n talouden kasvun ep√§lineaarisuus). Hajautetuissa j√§rjestelmiss√§ alueellisen tason tai jopa alueiden v√§listen verkostojen tulisi pysty√§ joko tasapainottamaan tai hy√∂dynt√§m√§√§n paikallisen tason ep√§lineaarisia muutoksia. The green economy is based on the use of natural resources and energy-efficiency in accordance with the objectives of sustainable development (United Nations 2012). The aim of the project was to create a village-level, decentralized, sustainable and competitive approach to the green economy transition and to create evaluation criteria (indicators) for the implementation of the model‚Äôs sustainability. The model is based on network thinking and the sustainable use of natural resources. A future vision of the sustainable development of the village and means of achieving the vision based on the utilization of a local resource base (natural resources and people) formed the starting point of the project. The project was carried out by implementing ‚Äúthe positive cycle program‚ÄĚ, which enabled the launch of local pilot projects and development processes based on the bioeconomy. In addition, indicators were created for model implementation. At the beginning of the project, village meetings were organized at which the village‚Äôs green economy vision for 2020 was created and the villagers' view of the current state of the village was explored alongside the related challenges and means of achieving the future vision. Development of the village‚Äôs own renewable energy production was identified as an important activity in the development process. After the village meetings, renewable natural resources were explored, energy balances were calculated, human resources (i.e. willing actors and know-how) were monitored and capital flight (e.g. the amount of capital flowing out of the village due to the purchase of fossil fuels) was calculated. The results of the project will benefit the villagers in multiple ways. The villagers became aware of the issue of capital flight. According to calculations, almost 50% of available money is spent on purchasing fossil energy. In addition, they became aware of the immense natural resources on their own territory, as well as options for using such resources in a way that increases the vitality of and benefits the entire village. The villagers‚Äô own capabilities, their awareness and the associated opportunities increased alongside the planning of the local power plant and the related business models. During the project, it was found that there was an increase in the common understanding of the potential impact of the village‚Äôs development. In addition, the project results revealed the need for changes in legislation and permit processes, as well as demand for particular investments and the importance of experimentation at regional level. The local green economy indicators developed (sustainable use of ecosystem services and local social indicators) provided the village‚Äôs vision with a direction, towards green economic growth. Information based on the indicators can be used in village development activities and will support local decision-making. Ecosystem services (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005, Saastamoinen ym. 2014) offer a significant new holistic approach to promoting sustainable interaction between society and nature. In order to use the services and opportunities provided by ecosystem services in a sustainable manner as part of the green economy, more systematic follow-up information is needed, particularly on the regulation of and support for ecosystem services, which determine the dynamics and resilience of such services. Systematic evaluation of the dynamics of ecosystem services will enable the determination of their potential. The green economy approach and its new structures (Agrohub), open data and advancing digitization are forming the foundation of the new type of indicator work. When planning and selecting indicators, it is essential that we identify ones which enable follow-up data to be gathered using novel methods. Decentralized system indicators should be built data hierarchically, from corporate and local level to regional and national level. Local-level indicators will be required in order to demonstrate and preferably forecast the sensitivity of nonlinear changes (green economic growth is nonlinear). Within decentralized systems or networks, or at inter regional or even regional level, we need to be able to either balance or utilize non-linear changes at local level.201

    Arktinen kylä : Biotalouden mahdollisuudet Lapissa

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    Extracting of waste air in multistorey residential buildings

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    Development of draughtless outdoor air inlets

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