21 research outputs found

    Career decision-making skills of primary education students in Greece : planning of career guidance activities throughout the curriculum

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    The purpose of this study was to construct a theoretically driven and psychometrically sound career decision making skills questionnaire to measure the dimensions that contribute to career decision-making of 6th grade primary education students. Principal components analyses indicated the presence of three empirically derived components that contribute to career decision making of primary education students and call for demands to develop educational activities throughout the curriculum. These career guidance activities have three main goals: (a) investigation of the world of work in relation with students’ self awareness, (b) development of simple strategies of decision making and problem solving, (c) awareness of the relationships among variables such as personal characteristics, school attendance, and life preparation. These activities can be used in school settings and have a strong effect on students’ understanding of how choices and planning affect their future.peer-reviewe

    Masculine vs Feminine Personality Traits and Women’s Employment Outcomes in Britain: A Field Experiment

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    In the current study, we utilized a correspondent test to capture the way in which firms respond to women who exhibit masculine and feminine personality traits. In doing so, we minimized the potential for reverse causality bias and unobserved heterogeneities to occur. Women who exhibit masculine personality traits have a 4.3 percentage points greater likelihood of gaining access to occupations than those displaying feminine personality traits. In both male- and female-dominated occupations, women with masculine personality traits have an occupational access advantage, as compared to those exhibiting feminine personality traits. Moreover, women with masculine personality traits take up positions which offer 10 percentage points higher wages, in comparison with those displaying feminine personality traits. Furthermore, wage premiums are higher for those exhibiting masculine personality traits in male-dominated occupations, than for female-dominated positions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first field experiment to examine the effect of masculine and feminine personality traits on entry-level pay scales. As feminine personality traits are stereotypically attributed to women, and these characteristics appear to yield fewer rewards within the market, they may offer one of many plausible explanations as to why women experience higher unemployment rates, whilst also receiving lower earnings, as compared to men

    Age, gender and race in the workplace: discrimination in recruitment

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    Despite the growing participation of older workers in the labour market, age discrimination prevails and many employers are prejudiced against older workers (Bowman et al 2017). Several studies have shown that age often intersects with other characteristics such as gender, contributing to ‘double’ or multiple discrimination. Using quantitative research and qualitative interviews, our study focused on the topic of discrimination in the UK at the recruitment stage. The experiment was conducted during 2017 whilst the qualitative research is on going. Findings suggest that that there is evidence of discrimination based on the characteristics of age, gender and race/ethnicity: older women are more likely to be excluded from job interviews; Black older women experience further difficulties in gaining an interview. Moreover, those selected tend to be shortlisted for lower status jobs. The paper will engage with theories of intersectionality, as well as ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ types of discrimination, in order to explore notions of the ‘ideal worker’. There are several implications in the findings. Here we will focus on three main challenges: first, of legislation which does not fully cover ‘triple discrimination’; second, for trade unions in dealing with cases of multiple discrimination; and third for policy makers who despite the government encouragement, witness older workers in the labour marker excluded during the process of recruitment. The research has been conducted during a period of uncertainty around Brexit and the paper will take this factor into consideration

    Mice With Decreased Number of Interneurons Exhibit Aberrant Spontaneous and Oscillatory Activity in the Cortex

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    GABAergic (γ-aminobutyric acid) neurons are inhibitory neurons and protect neural tissue from excessive excitation. Cortical GABAergic neurons play a pivotal role for the generation of synchronized cortical network oscillations. Imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms underlies many neuropsychiatric disorders and is correlated with abnormalities in oscillatory activity, especially in the gamma frequency range (30–80 Hz). We investigated the functional changes in cortical network activity in response to developmentally reduced inhibition in the adult mouse barrel cortex (BC). We used a mouse model that displays ∼50% fewer cortical interneurons due to the loss of Rac1 protein from Nkx2.1/Cre-expressing cells [Rac1 conditional knockout (cKO) mice], to examine how this developmental loss of cortical interneurons may affect basal synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity, spontaneous activity, and neuronal oscillations in the adult BC. The decrease in the number of interneurons increased basal synaptic transmission, as examined by recording field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) from layer II networks in the Rac1 cKO mouse cortex, decreased long-term potentiation (LTP) in response to tetanic stimulation but did not alter the pair-pulse ratio (PPR). Furthermore, under spontaneous recording conditions, Rac1 cKO brain slices exhibit enhanced sensitivity and susceptibility to emergent spontaneous activity. We also find that this developmental decrease in the number of cortical interneurons results in local neuronal networks with alterations in neuronal oscillations, exhibiting decreased power in low frequencies (delta, theta, alpha) and gamma frequency range (30–80 Hz) with an extra aberrant peak in high gamma frequency range (80–150 Hz). Therefore, our data show that disruption in GABAergic inhibition alters synaptic properties and plasticity, while it additionally disrupts the cortical neuronal synchronization in the adult BC

    Sex difference and intra-operative tidal volume: Insights from the LAS VEGAS study

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    BACKGROUND: One key element of lung-protective ventilation is the use of a low tidal volume (VT). A sex difference in use of low tidal volume ventilation (LTVV) has been described in critically ill ICU patients.OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether a sex difference in use of LTVV also exists in operating room patients, and if present what factors drive this difference.DESIGN, PATIENTS AND SETTING: This is a posthoc analysis of LAS VEGAS, a 1-week worldwide observational study in adults requiring intra-operative ventilation during general anaesthesia for surgery in 146 hospitals in 29 countries.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Women and men were compared with respect to use of LTVV, defined as VT of 8 ml kg-1 or less predicted bodyweight (PBW). A VT was deemed 'default' if the set VT was a round number. A mediation analysis assessed which factors may explain the sex difference in use of LTVV during intra-operative ventilation.RESULTS: This analysis includes 9864 patients, of whom 5425 (55%) were women. A default VT was often set, both in women and men; mode VT was 500 ml. Median [IQR] VT was higher in women than in men (8.6 [7.7 to 9.6] vs. 7.6 [6.8 to 8.4] ml kg-1 PBW, P < 0.001). Compared with men, women were twice as likely not to receive LTVV [68.8 vs. 36.0%; relative risk ratio 2.1 (95% CI 1.9 to 2.1), P < 0.001]. In the mediation analysis, patients' height and actual body weight (ABW) explained 81 and 18% of the sex difference in use of LTVV, respectively; it was not explained by the use of a default VT.CONCLUSION: In this worldwide cohort of patients receiving intra-operative ventilation during general anaesthesia for surgery, women received a higher VT than men during intra-operative ventilation. The risk for a female not to receive LTVV during surgery was double that of males. Height and ABW were the two mediators of the sex difference in use of LTVV.TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01601223

    The role of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) scheme in the settlement of disputes within commercial transactions

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    Society's desire for easier and quicker access to justice has led to the development of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR). 'Alternatives' to litigation, such as arbitration, mediation and banking ombudsman are examined as to their efficiency and capabilities in the settlement of (international) commercial disputes. It is concluded whether litigation can be replaced by ADR in case where commercial disputes arise. Also, there is discussion about the emergence of Online Dispute Resolution (ODR)

    Family support, school-age and workplace bullying for LGB people

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    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine associations between: family support during the school-age period, and school-age bullying (short-term associations); and family support during the school-age period and workplace bullying (long-term associations) for lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adults in Britain. Design/methodology/approach: The authors employ retrospective questions regarding family support for LGB children and school-age bullying and questions regarding workplace bullying in the respondents’ present jobs. A 2016 data set was utilized which was created by attending events during the UK LGBT History Month. Findings: The empirical investigation demonstrates that supportive family environments toward LGB children reduce both school-age and workplace bullying. Practical implications: Given the increasing number of people self-identifying as LGB, the significant percentages of school and workplace bullying incidents and the corresponding negative effects on people’s lives, it is important to examine the benefits of family support with regards to reducing school and workplace victimization. This study also reports that family support could have an enduring influence on the experiences of LGB children and adults. Originality/value: No known research has considered the possible developmental benefits of family support on reducing future workplace bullying for LGB children. In addition, this might be the first study which simultaneously examines family support toward LGB children, school-age and workplace bullying

    Polymer Free Amphilimus Drug Eluting Stent for Infrapopliteal Arterial Disease in Patients with Critical Limb Ischemia: A New Device in the Armamentarium

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    Background and Objectives: Endovascular technologies have significantly improved the outcome of patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). Drug eluting stents (DES) have documented their efficacy against percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and bare metal stents (BMS) in infrapopliteal arterial occlusive disease. However, late in-stent neoatherosclerosis may lead to vascular lumen loss and eventually thrombosis. Polymer free DES constitute a new technology aiming to improve long term patency which their action is still under investigation. The purpose of this study is to report the mechanism of action and to provide a literature review of a novel polymer free amphilimus eluting stent (Cre8, Alvimedica, Instabul, Turkey) in infrapopliteal arterial disease. Methods: Publications listed in electronic databases, European Union Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials Database, as well as scientific programmes of recent interventional vascular conferences were searched. Three studies were included. We analyzed primary and secondary patency, major amputation rate, freedom from CD-TLR, and mortality. Results: Cre8 was implanted in 79 patients with CLI. Most of the patients (n = 65) were Rutherford class 5–6 (82.3%), and diabetes mellitus (DM) was present in 66 patients (83.5%). Mean primary patency was 82.5% at 12 months. Mean lesion stented length was 20 mm and 35 mm in two studies. Mean limb salvage was 91.3% at 12 months. Freedom from CD-TLR was reported in two out of the three studies and was 96% and 83.8%. Mortality was 15% and 23.8% in the same studies, whilst it was not reported in one study. Conclusion: Stenting of infrapopliteal arteries with Cre8 is safe and feasible in patients with CLI and diabetes. All studies have shown very good primary patency and freedom from CD-TLR at 12 and 24 months. Larger observational prospective studies and randomized trials are necessary to establish long term effectiveness and clinical outcomes using the non-polymer Cre8 DES
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