107 research outputs found

    Soybean morphological characters and yield components as influenced by growth type, row spacing, population and planting date

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    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of row spacing, population and planting date on the morphological characters and yield components of soybean cultivars which have indeterminate, semideterminate and determinate growth habits;Experiment I contained two indeterminates, two semideterminates and two determinates, three row spacings (69, 34 and 17 cm) and three populations (33, 63, 93 plants per m(\u272)). This study was conducted for two years at three locations. Experiment II contained one indeterminate, two semideterminates and one determinate, three populations (33, 63, 93 plants per m(\u272)) and three planting dates starting in mid-May and at three-week intervals. A 34 cm row spacing was used. A split plot design was used in both experiments;Plant height, number of nodes, lodging and height of the lowest pod increased as row spacing decreased from 69 to 34 cm. The number of branches per plant and percent stand loss decreased as row spacing decreased. There was a decrease in pods per node, but an increase in seeds per pod as row spacing decreased. The yield (per ha) increased while the yield per plant was unchanged as row width decreased. The increased yield was attributed to the greater observed plant survival in the narrower row spacings. When the plants were divided into three sections, decreased row spacings reduced the number of pods and seed yield in the lower section. As population increased plant height, lodging, height of the lowest pod and percent stand loss increased. The number of nodes, number of pods, branches and yield per plant decreased as population increased. The number of pods per node and seeds per pod also decreased as population increased;The indeterminate cultivars had a greater increase in plant height at maturity as row spacing decreased, whereas the determinate cultivars were affected more as population increased. The semideterminates and determinates had no greater yield response than the indeterminates to narrow rows;The upper section contributed approximately 28, 45, and 43 percent to the seed yield of indeterminate, semideterminate and determinate growth types, respectively, while 52, 42, and 38 percent was contributed by the middle section, respectively. The lower section contributed 20, 13 and 18 percent to the total seed yield of the three growth types, respectively;All cultivars required fewer days to flowering and the grain yield was reduced with delayed planting. The number of nodes at maturity decreased as planting was delayed, but lodging was unchanged. The upper section of the indeterminate cultivar was affected less than the semideterminate types by delayed planting

    Wheat Variety Selection to Maximize Returns and Minimize Risk: An Application of Portfolio Theory

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    This research shows that a portfolio of wheat varieties could enhance profitability and reduce risk over the selection of a single variety for Kansas wheat producers. Many Kansas wheat farmers select varieties solely based on published average yields. This study uses portfolio theory from business investment analysis to find the optimal, yield-maximizing and risk-minimizing combination of wheat varieties in Kansas.portfolio theory, wheat variety selection, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Crop Production/Industries, Industrial Organization, Production Economics, Risk and Uncertainty, Q12, Q16,

    Effect of Tebuthiuron and 2, 4, 5-T on Carbohydrate Levels in Roots of Blackjack Oak and Winges Elm

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    Agronom

    Inhibition of wheat by sorghum residue under several tillage systems

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    Relationship between tillering and grain yield of Kansas wheat varieties

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    Seasonality and buoyancy suppression of turbulence in the Bay of Bengal

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    Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2019. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters, 46(8), (2019):4346-4355, doi:10.1029/2018GL081577.A yearlong record from moored current, temperature, conductivity, and four mixing meters (χpods) in the northernmost international waters of the Bay of Bengal quantifies upper‐ocean turbulent diffusivity of heat (Kt) and its response to the Indian monsoon. Data indicate (1) pronounced intermittency in turbulence at semidiurnal, diurnal, and near‐inertial timescales, (2) strong turbulence above 25‐m depth during the SW (summer) and NE (winter) monsoon relative to the transition periods (compare Kt > 10−4 m2/s to Kt  ∼ 10−5 m2/s, and (3) persistent suppression of turbulence (Kt < 10−5 m2/s) for 3 to 5 months in the latter half of the SW monsoon coincident with enhanced near‐surface stratification postarrival of low‐salinity water from the Brahmaputra‐Ganga‐Meghna delta and monsoonal precipitation. This suppression promotes maintenance of the low‐salinity surface waters within the interior of the bay preconditioning the upper northern Indian Ocean for the next year's monsoon.This work was supported by the U.S. Office of Naval Research (ONR) Grants N00014‐14‐1‐0236 and N00014‐17‐1‐2472, and the Ocean Mixing and Monsoon program of the Indian Ministry of Earth Sciences. The deployment of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution mooring and RW and JTF were supported by ONR Grant N00014‐13‐1‐0453. The deployment and recovery of the mooring were carried out by RV Sagar Nidhi and RV Sagar Kanya, respectively, with the help of the crew and science parties. Thanks to National Institute of Ocean Technology (India) for buoy support. The authors acknowledge invaluable discussions with Johannes Becherer, Deepak Cherian, and Sally Warner at CEOAS, OSU, and Dipanjan Chaudhuri, J Sree Lekha, and Debasis Sengupta at CAOS, IISc. The authors thank two anonymous reviewers for their detailed reviews, which have helped sharpen many aspects of this paper. Data can be accessed as described in section S2.2019-10-0

    Enterocyte STAT5 promotes mucosal wound healing via suppression of myosin light chain kinase-mediated loss of barrier function and inflammation

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    Epithelial myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)-dependent barrier dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We reported that epithelial GM-CSF–STAT5 signalling is essential for intestinal homeostatic response to gut injury. However, mechanism, redundancy by STAT5 or cell types involved remained foggy. We here generated intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific STAT5 knockout mice, these mice exhibited a delayed mucosal wound healing and dysfunctional intestinal barrier characterized by elevated levels of NF-κB activation and MLCK, and a reduction of zonula occludens expression in IECs. Deletion of MLCK restored intestinal barrier function in STAT5 knockout mice, and facilitated mucosal wound healing. Consistently, knockdown of stat5 in IEC monolayers led to increased NF-κB DNA binding to MLCK promoter, myosin light chain phosphorylation and tight junction (TJ) permeability, which were potentiated by administration of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and prevented by concurrent NF-κB knockdown. Collectively, enterocyte STAT5 signalling protects against TJ barrier dysfunction and promotes intestinal mucosal wound healing via an interaction with NF-κB to suppress MLCK. Targeting IEC STAT5 signalling may be a novel therapeutic approach for treating intestinal barrier dysfunction in IBD

    Austrian Winter Pea (1992)

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