2,239 research outputs found

    Assembly of different length of polyubiquitins on the catalytic cysteine of E2 enzymes without E3 ligase; a novel application of non-reduced/reduced 2-dimensional electrophoresis

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    AbstractIn this study using non-reduced/reduced 2-dimensional electrophoresis (NR/R-2DE), we clearly demonstrated that E3-independent ubiquitination by Ube2K produced not only unanchored but also Ube2K-linked polyubiquitins through thioester and isopeptide bonds. E3-independent assembly of polyubiquitins on the catalytic cysteine of Ube2K strongly supports the possibility of ‘en bloc transfer’ for polyubiquitination. From the same analyses of E3-independent ubiquitination products by other E2s, we also found that different lengths of polyubiquitins were linked to different E2s through thioester bond; longer chains by Cdc34 like Ube2K, short chains by Ube2g2, and mono-ubiquitin by UbcH10. Our results suggest that E2s possess the different intrinsic catalytic activities for polyubiquitination

    First Confirmed Report of Powdery Mildew Caused by Erysiphe aquilegiae on Casuarina cunninghamiana in Argentina

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    Casuarina cunninghamiana Miq. (Fam. Casuarinaceae) is native to Australia and was introduced to Argentina and used as a windbreak, shade tree and for ornamental purposes. In autumn 2009, the potted seedlings in the nursery of La Plata University were found to be infected with a powdery mildew. Symptoms first appeared as thin white colonies, which subsequently developed into an abundant growth on the leaves and young stems. The damage caused by the powdery mildew infection has been observed every year after this initial infection and was again confirmed in April, 2011. There have been a few reports on the presence of powdery mildew on Casuarina spp. (Mantz et al., 2008; Farr and Rossman, 2011). In all the reports, the pathogen was cited to be Oidium sp. Thus, the aim of this work was to identify the causal agent of the powdery mildew observed on casuarina in Argentina

    Thyroid Isthmus Length and Iodine Turnover as Predictors of Successful Radioactive Iodine Therapy in Patients with Graves’ Disease

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    Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy is an effective treatment option for Graves’ disease. However, predicting treatment failures after RAI therapy remains controversial. The objective of this study was to investigate the factors associated with the success rate of RAI therapy for treatment of Graves’ hyperthyroidism. Thyroid functional outcome, pre-RAI ultrasonographic features, and clinical parameters were evaluated retrospectively in 98 patients followed up for at least 12 months after RAI (mean RAI dose was 11.7 ± 1.8 mCi). Hypothyroidism was achieved in 59 patients (60.2%), and euthyroidism in 16 patients (16.3%), while 23 patients (23.5%) remained hyperthyroid. Age, sex, body mass index, pre-RAI thyroid function, or thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin levels were not associated with treatment outcome. Length of thyroid isthmus (p=0.028) and 2- to 24-hour iodine uptake ratios (p=0.002) were significantly associated with treatment failure, which was defined as a persistent hyperthyroid status after RAI therapy. Patients with a longer isthmus had a higher risk of remaining hyperthyroid, with a threshold for isthmus length of 5.2 mm, with a sensitivity of 69.6% and specificity of 70.3% for treatment success. Measuring the length of the thyroid isthmus can be a simple and useful way to predict RAI treatment outcome

    Striatal neuroinflammation promotes parkinsonism in rats

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    The specific role of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease remains to be fully elucidated. By infusing lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the striatum, we investigated the effect of neuroinflammation on the dopamine nigrostriatal pathway. Here, we report that LPS-induced neuroinflammation in the striatum causes progressive degeneration of the dopamine nigrostriatal system, which is accompanied by motor impairments resembling parkinsonism. Our results indicate that neurodegeneration is associated with defects in the mitochondrial respiratory chain related to extensive S-nitrosylation/nitration of mitochondrial proteins. Mitochondrial injury was prevented by treatment of L-N^6^-(l-iminoethyl)-lysine, an inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor, suggesting that iNOS-derived NO is responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, the nigral dopamine neurons exhibited intracytoplasmic [alpha]-synuclein and ubiquitin accumulation. These results demonstrate that degeneration of nigral dopamine neurons by neuroinflammation is associated with mitochondrial malfunction induced by NO-mediated S-nitrosylation/nitration of mitochondrial proteins

    Treatment of Thoracolumbar Fracture

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    The most common fractures of the spine are associated with the thoracolumbar junction. The goals of treatment of thoracolumbar fracture are leading to early mobilization and rehabilitation by restoring mechanical stability of fracture and inducing neurologic recovery, thereby enabling patients to return to the workplace. However, it is still debatable about the treatment methods. Neurologic injury should be identified by thorough physical examination for motor and sensory nerve system in order to determine the appropriate treatment. The mechanical stability of fracture also should be evaluated by plain radiographs and computed tomography. In some cases, magnetic resonance imaging is required to evaluate soft tissue injury involving neurologic structure or posterior ligament complex. Based on these physical examinations and imaging studies, fracture stability is evaluated and it is determined whether to use the conservative or operative treatment. The development of instruments have led to more interests on the operative treatment which saves mobile segments without fusion and on instrumentation through minimal invasive approach in recent years. It is still controversial for the use of these treatments because there have not been verified evidences yet. However, the morbidity of patients can be decreased and good clinical and radiologic outcomes can be achieved if the recent operative treatments are used carefully considering the fracture pattern and the injury severity

    Variability of Response Time as a Predictor of Methylphenidate Treatment Response in Korean Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

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    PURPOSE: Methylphenidate (MPH) is an effective medication for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, about 30% of patients do not respond to or are unable to tolerate MPH. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized that great variability in response time (RT) among Korean children with ADHD on a computerized continuous performance attention test would be related to poor MPH treatment response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children (ages 6-18 years) with ADHD were recruited for a prospective 12-week, open-labeled, multicenter study to examine optimal dosage of OROS methylphenidate. Of the 144 subjects selected, 28 dropped out due to adverse events, medication noncompliance, or follow-up loss, and an additional 26 subjects with comorbid disorders were excluded from statistical analyses. We defined 'responders' as subjects who received a score of less than 18 on the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder rating scale (ARS; Korean version, K-ARS) and a score of 1 or 2 on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale (CGI-I). RT variability was assessed with the ADHD diagnostic system (ADS). RESULTS: Fifty-nine (67%) subjects responded to MPH treatment. The non-responders showed greater RT variability at baseline (Mann Whitney U = 577.0, p < 0.01). Baseline RT variability was a significant predictor of MPH response (Nagelkerke R(2) = 0.136, p < 0.01). It predicted 94.9% of responder, 17.2% of non-responder and 69.3% of overall group. CONCLUSION: High RT variability may predict poor response to MPH treatment in children with ADHDope

    Migration profile of the Republic of Korea

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    A HISTORICAL APPROACH TO SYPHILIS INFECTION IN KOREA

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    From the end of the 15th century, syphilis spread worldwide, posing a serious threat to public health. Venereal syphilis has been a major research topic, not only in clinical medicine but also in paleopathology, especially because it is a disease of questionable origin and of high prevalence until the discovery of antibiotics. Syphilis in history has been studied extensively in Europe and the Americas, though less so in Asia. In this review, based on extant historical documents and available paleopathological data, we pinpoint the introduction and trace the spread of venereal syphilis in Korea to the end of the 19th century. This review provides fundamental information that will be of great help to future research on pre-20th century syphilis in Korea
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