80,970 research outputs found

    Superconducting properties of Gd-Ba-Cu-O single grains processed from a new, Ba-rich precursor compound

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    Gd-Ba-Cu-O (GdBCO) single grains have been previously melt-processed successfully in air using a generic Mg-Nd-Ba-Cu-O (Mg-NdBCO) seed crystal. Previous research has revealed that the addition of a small amount of BaO2 to the precursor powders prior to melt processing can suppress the formation of Gd/Ba solid solution, and lead to a significant improvement in superconducting properties of the single grains. Research into the effects of a higher Ba content on single grain growth, however, has been limited by the relatively small grain size in the earlier studies. This has been addressed by developing Ba-rich precursor compounds Gd-163 and Gd-143, fabricated specifically to enable the presence of greater concentrations of Ba during the melt process. In this study, we propose a new processing route for the fabrication of high performance GdBCO single grain bulk superconductors in air by enriching the precursor powder with these new Ba rich compounds. The influence of the addition of the new compounds on the microstructures and superconducting properties of GdBCO single grains is reported

    Data-Driven Time-Frequency Analysis

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    In this paper, we introduce a new adaptive data analysis method to study trend and instantaneous frequency of nonlinear and non-stationary data. This method is inspired by the Empirical Mode Decomposition method (EMD) and the recently developed compressed (compressive) sensing theory. The main idea is to look for the sparsest representation of multiscale data within the largest possible dictionary consisting of intrinsic mode functions of the form {a(t)cos(θ(t))}\{a(t) \cos(\theta(t))\}, where aV(θ)a \in V(\theta), V(θ)V(\theta) consists of the functions smoother than cos(θ(t))\cos(\theta(t)) and θ0\theta'\ge 0. This problem can be formulated as a nonlinear L0L^0 optimization problem. In order to solve this optimization problem, we propose a nonlinear matching pursuit method by generalizing the classical matching pursuit for the L0L^0 optimization problem. One important advantage of this nonlinear matching pursuit method is it can be implemented very efficiently and is very stable to noise. Further, we provide a convergence analysis of our nonlinear matching pursuit method under certain scale separation assumptions. Extensive numerical examples will be given to demonstrate the robustness of our method and comparison will be made with the EMD/EEMD method. We also apply our method to study data without scale separation, data with intra-wave frequency modulation, and data with incomplete or under-sampled data

    Extracting a shape function for a signal with intra-wave frequency modulation

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    In this paper, we consider signals with intra-wave frequency modulation. To handle this kind of signals effectively, we generalize our data-driven time-frequency analysis by using a shape function to describe the intra-wave frequency modulation. The idea of using a shape function in time-frequency analysis was first proposed by Wu. A shape function could be any periodic function. Based on this model, we propose to solve an optimization problem to extract the shape function. By exploring the fact that s is a periodic function, we can identify certain low rank structure of the signal. This structure enables us to extract the shape function from the signal. To test the robustness of our method, we apply our method on several synthetic and real signals. The results are very encouraging

    Removing the Stiffness of Elastic Force from the Immersed Boundary Method for the 2D Stokes Equations

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    The Immersed Boundary method has evolved into one of the most useful computational methods in studying fluid structure interaction. On the other hand, the Immersed Boundary method is also known to suffer from a severe timestep stability restriction when using an explicit time discretization. In this paper, we propose several efficient semi-implicit schemes to remove this stiffness from the Immersed Boundary method for the two-dimensional Stokes flow. First, we obtain a novel unconditionally stable semi-implicit discretization for the immersed boundary problem. Using this unconditionally stable discretization as a building block, we derive several efficient semi-implicit schemes for the immersed boundary problem by applying the Small Scale Decomposition to this unconditionally stable discretization. Our stability analysis and extensive numerical experiments show that our semi-implicit schemes offer much better stability property than the explicit scheme. Unlike other implicit or semi-implicit schemes proposed in the literature, our semi-implicit schemes can be solved explicitly in the spectral space. Thus the computational cost of our semi-implicit schemes is comparable to that of an explicit scheme, but with a much better stability property.Comment: 40 pages with 8 figure

    Dynamic growth estimates of maximum vorticity for 3D incompressible Euler equations and the SQG model

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    By performing estimates on the integral of the absolute value of vorticity along a local vortex line segment, we establish a relatively sharp dynamic growth estimate of maximum vorticity under some assumptions on the local geometric regularity of the vorticity vector. Our analysis applies to both the 3D incompressible Euler equations and the surface quasi-geostrophic model (SQG). As an application of our vorticity growth estimate, we apply our result to the 3D Euler equation with the two anti-parallel vortex tubes initial data considered by Hou-Li [12]. Under some additional assumption on the vorticity field, which seems to be consistent with the computational results of [12], we show that the maximum vorticity can not grow faster than double exponential in time. Our analysis extends the earlier results by Cordoba-Fefferman [6, 7] and Deng-Hou-Yu [8, 9]