42 research outputs found

    Performance of formulae based estimates of glomerular filtration rate for carboplatin dosing in stage 1 seminoma

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    <b>Background:</b> Single cycle carboplatin, dosed by glomerular filtration rate (GFR), is standard adjuvant therapy for stage 1 seminoma. Accurate measurement of GFR is essential for correct dosing. Isotopic methods remain the gold standard for the determination of GFR. Formulae to estimate GFR have improved the assessment of renal function in non-oncological settings. We assessed the utility of these formulae for carboplatin dosing.<p></p> <b>Methods:</b> We studied consecutive subjects receiving adjuvant carboplatin for stage 1 seminoma at our institution between 2007 and 2012. Subjects underwent 51Cr-ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) measurement of GFR with carboplatin dose calculated using the Calvert formula. Theoretical carboplatin doses were calculated from estimated GFR using Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology (CKD-EPI), Management of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and Cockcroft–Gault (CG) formulae with additional correction for actual body surface area (BSA). Carboplatin doses calculated by formulae were compared with dose calculated by isotopic GFR; a difference <10% was considered acceptable.<p></p> <b>Results:</b> 115 patients were identified. Mean isotopic GFR was 96.9 ml/min/1.73 m2. CG and CKD-EPI tended to overestimate GFR whereas MDRD tended to underestimate GFR. The CKD-EPI formula had greatest accuracy. The CKD-EPI formula, corrected for actual BSA, performed best; 45.9% of patients received within 10% of correct carboplatin dose. Patients predicted as underdosed (13.5%) by CKD-EPI were more likely to be obese (p = 0.013); there were no predictors of the 40.5% receiving an excess dose.<p></p> <b>Conclusions:</b> Our data support further evaluation of the CKD-EPI formula in this patient population but clinically significant variances in carboplatin dosing occur using non-isotopic methods of GFR estimation. Isotopic determination of GFR should remain the recommended standard for carboplatin dosing when accuracy is essential.<p></p&gt

    Radiological response heterogeneity is of prognostic significance in metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted therapy

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    Background: Response evaluation criteria in solid tumours (RECIST) is widely used to assess tumour response but is limited by not considering disease site or radiological heterogeneity (RH). Objective: To determine whether RH or disease site has prognostic significance in patients with metastatic clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Design, setting, and participants: A retrospective analysis was conducted of a second-line phase II study in patients with metastatic ccRCC (NCT00942877), evaluating 138 patients with 458 baseline lesions. Intervention: The phase II trial assessed vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted therapy ± Src inhibition. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: RH at week 8 was assessed within individual patients with two or more lesions to predict overall survival (OS) using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model. We defined a high heterogeneous response as occurring when one or more lesion underwent a ≄10% reduction and one or more lesion underwent a ≄10% increase in size. Disease progression was defined by RECIST 1.1 criteria. Results and limitations: In patients with a complete/partial response or stable disease by RECIST 1.1 and two or more lesions at week 8, those with a high heterogeneous response had a shorter OS compared to those with a homogeneous response (hazard ratio [HR] 2.01; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39–2.92; p < 0.001). Response by disease site at week 8 did not affect OS. At disease progression, one or more new lesion was associated with worse survival compared with >20% increase in sum of target lesion diameters only (HR 2.12; 95% CI: 1.43–3.14; p < 0.001). Limitations include retrospective study design. Conclusions: RH and the development of new lesions may predict survival in metastatic ccRCC. Further prospective studies are required. Patient summary: We looked at individual metastases in patients with kidney cancer and showed that a variable response to treatment and the appearance of new metastases may be associated with worse survival. Further studies are required to confirm these findings

    Measurement of prompt D0^{0} and D‟\overline{D}0^{0} meson azimuthal anisotropy and search for strong electric fields in PbPb collisions at root SNN\sqrt{S_{NN}} = 5.02 TeV

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    The strong Coulomb field created in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions is expected to produce a rapiditydependent difference (Av2) in the second Fourier coefficient of the azimuthal distribution (elliptic flow, v2) between D0 (uc) and D0 (uc) mesons. Motivated by the search for evidence of this field, the CMS detector at the LHC is used to perform the first measurement of Av2. The rapidity-averaged value is found to be (Av2) = 0.001 ? 0.001 (stat)? 0.003 (syst) in PbPb collisions at ?sNN = 5.02 TeV. In addition, the influence of the collision geometry is explored by measuring the D0 and D0mesons v2 and triangular flow coefficient (v3) as functions of rapidity, transverse momentum (pT), and event centrality (a measure of the overlap of the two Pb nuclei). A clear centrality dependence of prompt D0 meson v2 values is observed, while the v3 is largely independent of centrality. These trends are consistent with expectations of flow driven by the initial-state geometry. ? 2021 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY licens

    Measurement of the CP-violating phase ϕs_{s} in the B0^{0}s_{s}→J/ψ φ(1020) →ΌâșΌ⁻KâșK⁻ channel in proton-proton collisions at √s = 13 TeV