7 research outputs found

    Stevens-Johnson Syndrome From Combined Allopurinol and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A Narrative Review

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    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a severe and potentially debilitating skin reaction frequently related to medication use. Allopurinol and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are commonly prescribed medications for prevalent health conditions worldwide, and their interaction associated with SJS warrants further investigation. A comprehensive literature search was performed to investigate cases as studies related to SJS occurring in patients with concomitant use of allopurinol and ACE inhibitors. We identified case reports and studies detailing hypersensitivity reactions, including SJS, attributed to a combination of allopurinol and ACE inhibitors. Despite the drug-drug interactions or lack thereof seen in patient populations, there is no definitive evidence of a pharmacokinetic interaction between allopurinol and ACE inhibitors. We were only able to find one case report specifically detailing SJS in a patient on combined ACE inhibitors and allopurinol. While the exact mechanism of the interaction is unclear, those reported cases of severe hypersensitivity reactions suggest a previous history of impaired renal function as a predisposing factor in the development of SJS. The potential risk of SJS with coadministration of ACE inhibitors and allopurinol is a drug-drug interaction that physicians should be aware of. This topic requires additional attention to determine if this drug combination should be avoided entirely in certain patients

    Interventional procedures for refractory neuropathic pain

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    Neuropathic pain is an increasingly common disease affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Refractory pain poses a significant impact on patients’ quality of life, financial and economic stability, and social interaction. Numerous effective modalities for treatment of refractory neuropathic pain are presently available. Currently, many options provide symptomatic treatment but are associated with an unfavorable side effect profile and increased risk of addiction. The present investigation reviews current medical management for refractory neuropathic pain including the use of antidepressants, anticonvulsants, gabapentinoids and opioid therapy, as well as interventional pain procedures such as spinal cord stimulation (SCS) and intrathecal targeted drug delivery. While multidisciplinary management with lifestyle modification and pharmacologic regimens remains at the forefront of treating many of these patients, interventional modalities are growing in popularity and have been demonstrated to be highly efficacious. In this regard, continued understanding of the pathophysiology surrounding refractory neuropathic pain has led to the development of interventional procedures and better outcomes for patients suffering from refractory neuropathic pain. When and if patients fail conservative therapy, interventional techniques are desirable alternatives for pain management. SCS and intrathecal targeted drug delivery are important tools for the treatment of refractory neuropathic pain. In summary, treatment modalities for refractory neuropathic pain are evolving with demonstrated efficacy. This review aims to outline the efficacy of various interventional procedures for refractory neuropathic pain in comparison to traditional drug therapies

    Bupropion Mediated Effects on Depression, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Smoking Cessation

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    Bupropion had been in use since the late 1980s as an unconventional treatment for depression. Unlike other antidepressants, bupropion has no serotonergic activity and inhibits the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine. The drug has been used to treat depression, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and smoking cessation. This investigation reviews the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of bupropion and its mechanisms of action and interactions with other drugs. We evaluated the efficacy of major on and off-label uses of bupropion, focusing on the indications, benefits, and adverse effects. Our review demonstrates that bupropion is superior to placebo and non-inferior to SSRIs such as escitalopram in treating major depressive disorder. More research is needed to determine positive patient-centered outcomes such as increases in quality of life. In the case of ADHD, the evidence for efficacy is mixed with poorly conducted randomized clinical trials, small sample sizes, and a lack of long-term assessments. The same is true in the case of bipolar disorder in which there is still limited and controversial data available on bupropion's safety and efficacy. In the case of smoking cessation, bupropion is found to be an effective anti-smoking drug with synergistic benefits when used as a combination therapy. We conclude that bupropion has the potential to provide benefit for a subset of patients who do not tolerate other typical antidepressants or anti-smoking therapies or for those whose treatment goals align with bupropion's unique side effect profile, such as smokers who wish to quit and lose weight. Additional research is needed to determine the drug's full clinical potential, particularly in the areas of adolescent depression and combination therapy with varenicline or dextromethorphan. Clinicians should use this review to understand the varied uses of the drug and identify the situations and patient populations in which bupropion can lend its greatest benefit

    Blood Glucose Alterations in Spinal versus General anesthesia in those undergoing Cesarean Section Delivery

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    Introduction: Major body injury or surgery is associated with reproducible metabolic and hormonal responses. Alteration of blood glucose levels is one of the necessary metabolic changes to surgical stress. Surgical techniques and different methods of anesthesia are factors that can help to control and balance the body’s hormones. One of the most effective ways for decline the endocrine-metabolic response is local anesthesia. We conducted this study to compare the measurement of blood glucose before, during and after surgery and complete the pieces of anesthesia puzzle. Methods & Materials: This was retrospective cohort study performed on 126 patients between 18-38 ages under cesarean section. Sixty-three women who were undergoing spinal anesthesia have been selected as first group, and the second group was 63 patients with general anesthesia. In this study, level of glucose was recorded by glucometer 30 min before surgery (in waiting room), during operation (after childbirth) and 30 min after surgery (in recovery room) measured and recorded. Results: Average of blood glucose levels in spinal anesthesia group was significantly different between the three measurements (p value = 0.007), and also in the general anesthesia group were more significant (p value < 0.001). Mean of blood glucose 30 min before surgery in spinal and general anesthesia, were 81.49±14.64 and 84.09±10.95, respectively (p value = 0.26), and during surgery were 86.50±23.49 and 90.74±17.82 (p value = 0.256), and finally 30 min after operation were 79.93±18.35 and 94.87±16.32 ( p value < 0.001). Conclusion: Spinal anesthesia is more effective way to decease blood sugar alterations and its adverse effects on mothers hormonal system during cesarean sections

    The Role of Alpha-2 Agonists for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children: A Review

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    Introduction: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders, characterized by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), which is marked by symptoms such as inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that can affect academic, social, and personal functioning in children and adolescents. This review summarizes clinical trials demonstrating the effectiveness of Alpha-2 agonists in reducing symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in children with ADHD. Studies were identified through a systematic search of PubMed and Cochrane databases. However, these medications’ long-term safety and efficacy remain uncertain, with a lack of data on their effects on growth, cardiovascular function, and other adverse events. Further studies are required to determine these medications’ optimal dose and treatment duration. Methods: Medications that target the noradrenergic system, such as Alpha-2 agonists, have been increasingly used as a treatment option for ADHD, with guanfacine and clonidine being two of the most commonly used medications. They function by selectively targeting Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in the brain leading to improved attention and reduced hyperactivity and impulsivity symptoms in children with ADHD. Results: Clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of Alpha-2 agonists in treating ADHD in children by reducing symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. However, these medications’ long-term safety and efficacy still need to be completely understood. Due to a lack of information on the effects of Alpha-2 agonists on growth, cardiovascular function, and other long-term adverse events, more studies must investigate the optimal dose and treatment duration for these medications. Conclusions: Despite these concerns, Alpha-2 agonists remain a valuable treatment option for ADHD in children, especially those unable to tolerate stimulant medications or who have coexisting conditions such as tic disorders. Future research should continue to explore the safety and efficacy of Alpha-2 agonists in the long term. In conclusion, Alpha-2 agonists show promise as a treatment for ADHD in children; however, the safety and efficacy of these drugs in the long term are not yet completely understood. Additional studies are required to investigate the optimal dose and treatment duration for these medications in their use as a treatment for this debilitating disease

    Helicobacter Pylori: A Review of Current Treatment Options in Clinical Practice

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    Background: When prescribing antibiotics, infection eradication rates, local resistance rates, and cost should be among the most essential considerations. Helicobacter pylori is among the most common infections worldwide, and it can lead to burdensome sequela for the patient and the healthcare system, without appropriate treatment. Due to constantly fluctuating resistance rates, regimens must be constantly assessed to ensure effectiveness. Methods: This was a narrative review. The sources for this review are as follows: searching on PubMed, Google Scholar, Medline, and ScienceDirect; using keywords: Helicobacter pylori, Treatment Options, Clinical Practice. Results: Multiple antibiotics are prescribed as part of the regimen to thwart high resistance rates. This can lead to unwanted adverse reactions and adherence issues, due to the amount and timing of medication administration, which also may contribute to resistance. Single-capsule combination capsules have reached the market to ease this concern, but brand-only may be problematic for patient affordability. Due to the previously mentioned factors, effectiveness and affordability must be equally considered. Conclusions: This review will utilize guidelines to discuss current treatment options and give cost considerations to elicit the most effective regimen for the patient

    Acromegaly: Pathophysiological Considerations and Treatment Options Including the Evolving Role of Oral Somatostatin Analogs

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    Acromegaly is a condition most commonly diagnosed in the fifth decade of life and has numerous treatment options. In this regard, Mycapssa® is the first FDA-approved oral octreotide capsule for treating acromegaly, combining the efficacy of the somatostatin receptor ligand, octreotide, with the ease of a twice-daily oral capsule. Where surgical treatment is not an option, somatostatin analogs, including octreotide, are the first line of medical treatment for acromegaly, requiring regular subcutaneous or intramuscular injections administered by a patient’s healthcare provider. Octreotide capsules (Mycapssa®) provide an alternative to these somatostatin receptor ligand injections by combining octreotide with other excipients to produce a transient permeability enhancer technology that improves paracellular transport of octreotide across the gastrointestinal wall into the small intestine. Across multiple trials, including open-label (CH-ACM-01), double-blind placebo-controlled (CHIASMA OPTIMAL), and open-label extension of the trial period (CHIASMA OPTIMAL OLE), Mycapssa® octreotide capsules maintained a consistent biochemical normalization of IGF-1 and GH levels, safety profiles similar to injected somatostatin receptor ligands, and patient preference to continued treatment with octreotide capsules. While clinical trial data supports the use of octreotide capsules (Mycapssa®) in the pharmacological management of GH and IGF-1 levels, very little data exist regarding the drug’s efficacy, tolerability, and use in female or pediatric-specific populations. A better understanding of the efficacy, application, and role of oral octreotide capsules in the long-term medical management of acromegaly in a diversity of populations is imperative to best determine the risks/benefits for the clinician
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