80 research outputs found

    Software Defect Prediction using Deep Learning by Correlation Clustering of Testing Metrics

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    The software industry has made significant efforts in recent years to enhance software quality in businesses. The use of proactively defect prediction in the software will assist programmers and white box testing in detecting issues early, saving time and money. Conventional software defect prediction methods focus on traditional source code metrics such as code complexities, lines of code, and so on. These capabilities, unfortunately, are unable to retrieve the semantics of source code. In this paper, we have presented a novel Correlation Clustering fine-tuned CNN (CCFT-CNN) model based on testing Metrics. CCFT-CNN can predict the regions of source code that contain faults, errors, and bugs. Abstract Syntax Tree (AST) tokens are extracted as testing Metrics vectors from the source code. The correlation among AST testing Metrics is performed and clustered as a more relevant feature vector and fed into Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). Then, to enhance the accuracy of defect prediction, fine-tuning of the CNN model is performed by applying hyperparameters. The result analysis is performed on the PROMISE dataset that contains samples of open-source Java applications such as Camel Dataset, Jedit dataset, Poi dataset, Synapse dataset, Xerces dataset, and Xalan dataset. The result findings show that the CCFT- CNN model increases the average F-measure by 2% when compared to the baseline model

    Comparison of Various Optical Amplifiers on Performance of 16-64channels WDM System

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    In optical networks by means of hybrid optical amplifier WDM system is emerging rapidly. By the use of hybrid optical amplifier, the output of WDM system is increased. In this research article through several optical in different channels, it has been concluded that they are suitable for better performance with lesser number of channels. Their benefits can be recognized after the output of all established networks. Several combinations of hybrid optical amplifiers were used to find the advantage as well as limitations of existing amplifie

    Tectonic significance of dykes in the Sarnu-Dandali alkaline complex, Rajasthan, northwestern Deccan Traps

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    AbstractWhether swarms of preferentially oriented dykes are controlled by regional stress fields, or passively exploit basement structural fabric, is a much debated question, with support for either scenario in individual case studies. The Sarnu-Dandali alkaline complex, near the northwestern limit of the Deccan Traps continental flood basalt province, contains mafic to felsic alkaline volcano-plutonic rocks and carbonatites. The complex is situated near the northern end of the 600 km long, NNW–SSE-trending Barmer-Cambay rift. Mafic enclave swarms in the syenites suggest synplutonic mafic dykes injected into a largely liquid felsic magma chamber. Later coherent dykes in the complex, of all compositions and sizes, dominantly strike NNW–SSE, parallel to the Barmer-Cambay rift. The rift formed during two distinct episodes of extension, NW–SE in the early Cretaceous and NE–SW in the late Cretaceous. Control of the southern Indian Dharwar structural fabric on the rift trend, as speculated previously, is untenable, whereas the regional Precambrian basement trends (Aravalli and Malani) run NE–SW and NNE–SSW. We therefore suggest that the small-scale Sarnu-Dandali dykes and the much larger-scale Barmer-Cambay rift were not controlled by basement structure, but related to contemporaneous, late Cretaceous regional ENE–WSW extension, for which there is varied independent evidence

    Nucleic Acids Res

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    We have used surface plasmon resonance to investigate the nucleic acid binding properties of the core protein of hepatitis C virus, a disordered protein believed to chaperone the genomic RNA. It was previously shown that a peptide (peptide E) corresponding to the association of two basic clusters of core enhances the annealing and the dimerization of nucleic acid fragments derived from a stem loop (SL2) in the 3' untranslated region of the hepatitis C virus genome. However, strong aggregation of nucleic acids by core or peptide E in the excess of the latter precluded the characterization of their binding parameters up to now. By careful design of surface plasmon resonance experiments, we obtained accurate binding parameters for the interaction of peptide E with SL2-derived oligonucleotides of different lengths and sequences, in form of stem-loop, duplex or strand. Peptide E was found to bind in a salt dependent manner to all oligonucleotides assayed. Affinity data identify at least two binding modes, of which one is independent of sequence/structure, and the other is specific to the SL2 stem-loop fold. Stoichiometry data support a multi-motif binding model allowing formation of higher-order complexes. We propose that the modular binding mode demonstrated for structured RNA-binding proteins also applies to this disordered chaperone and is relevant to its activity

    A Cross-sectional Study to Assess the Incidence of Adverse Drug Reactions to the Covishield Vaccine among Healthcare Workers of a Tertiary Care Government Institute in North India

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    Background: Vaccines are a key strategy to stop the COVID19 pandemic. The present study was conducted to assess the incidence of Adverse Drug Reactions to the Covishield vaccine among healthcare workers. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, observational, questionnaire-based study was carried out on healthcare workers of R.U.H.S. College of Medical Sciences, Jaipur, Rajasthan. The study tool consisted of a digital questionnaire. Results: The present study was carried out among 316 healthcare workers who received the first dose of the Covishield vaccine. 83 (26.26%) participants complained of side effects after receiving the first dose of the Covishield vaccine. Fatigue (64), fever (52), body ache (40), swelling at the vaccination site (35), headache (25), and pain in the limb (18) were the most prevalent symptoms. Most post-vaccination symptoms were found to be mild. 67 participants showed side effects of vaccination within 24 hours while 16 showed side effects after 24 hours. Conclusion: This study reflects that one fourth of participants complained of side effects after receiving the first dose of the Covishield vaccine. These side effects are not severe and should not be an obstacle to the successful control of the Covid-19 pandemic in India

    Thermal energy harvesting of highly conductive graphene‑enhanced parain phase change material

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    Solar energy is the most plentiful renewable energy source that has the capability to keep up with the growing demand. When the sun’s energy is not available, thermal energy storage (TES) using phase change material (PCM) is a promising technique for storage and utilization. However, PCM’s low thermal conductivity may limit its use. The use of nanomaterials to enhance the thermal conductivity is one of the prominent solutions to overcome this issue. This research work reports that graphene nanoparticles (0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, 0.7% and 1% mass) enhanced paraffin wax (PW) to improve the thermophysical properties and transmittance capability. Thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultra-violet visible spectroscope (UV–VIS) were used for the characterization of the base PCM and nano-enhanced phase change materials (NePCM) composites. A significant improvement of 110% in thermal conductivity was obtained at 0.7% mass ratio compared to base PW without compromising the prepared composites’ latent heat storage (LHS) capacity. TGA and FTIR outcomes demonstrated excellent thermal and chemical stability, respectively. To check the thermal reliability of composite, the PW and nanocomposite were subjected to repeated thermal cycling. The outcome evidence that the NePCM composite had consistent thermal energy storage properties even after repeated thermal cycles. The composite’s light transmission was drastically lowered by 56.34% (PW/Gr-0.5) compared to base PW, resulting in PW/Gr composite has better thermal reliability in relation to thermal conductivity and LHS than base PCM, which can be used specifically in photovoltaic thermal systems and TES

    The association of a novel digital tool for assessment of early childhood cognitive development, 'DEvelopmental assessment on an E-Platform (DEEP)', with growth in rural India: A proof of concept study.

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    BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to fill the gap of scalable cognitive assessment tools for preschool children to enable identification of children at-risk of sub-optimal development and to support their timely referral into interventions. We present the associations between growth in early childhood, a well-established marker of cognitive development, and scores on a novel digital cognitive assessment tool called DEvelopmental Assessment on an E-Platform (DEEP) on a sample of 3-year old pre-schoolers from a rural region in north India. METHODS: Between February 2018 and March 2019, 1359 children from the Sustainable Programme Incorporating Nutrition and Games (SPRING) programme were followed up at 3-years age and data on DEEP, anthropometry and a clinical developmental assessment, the Bayley's Scale of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition (BSID-III) was collected. DEEP data from 200 children was used to train a machine learning algorithm to predict their score on the cognitive domain of BSID-III. The DEEP score of the remaining 1159 children was then predicted using this algorithm to examine the cross-sectional and prospective association of growth with the DEEP score. FINDINGS: The magnitude of the concurrent positive association between height-for-age and cognitive z-scores in 3-year olds was similar when cognition was measured by BSID-III (0.20 standard deviations increase for every unit change in specifically age-adjusted height (HAZ), 95% CI = 0.06-0.35) and DEEP (0.26 CI, 0.11-0.41). A similar positive prospective relationship was found between growth at 18 (0.21 CI, 0.17-0.26) and 12-months (0.18 CI, 0.13-0.23) and DEEP score measured at 3-years. Additionally, the relationship between growth and cognitive development was found to be dependant on socioeconomic status (SES). INTERPRETATION: In this study, we suggest the utility of DEEP, a scalable, digital cognitive assessment tool, to measure cognition in preschool children. Further validation in different and larger datasets is necessary to confirm our findings. FUNDING: The SPRING Programme was funded through a Wellcome Trust programme grant and the follow-up study by the Corporate Social Responsibility initiative grant from Madura Microfinance Ltd

    The effect of cumulative early life adversities, and their differential mediation through hair cortisol levels, on childhood growth and cognition: Three-year follow-up of a birth cohort in rural India.

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    Background: Early adversities negatively impact children's growth and development, putatively mediated by chronic physiological stress resulting from these adverse experiences. We aimed to estimate the associations between prospectively measured cumulative early adversities with growth and cognition outcomes in rural Indian preschool children and to explore if hair cortisol concentration (HCC), a measure of chronic physiological stress, mediated the above association. Methods: Participants were recruited from the SPRING cRCT in rural Haryana, India. Adversities experienced through pregnancy and the first year of life were measured in 1304 children at 12-months. HCC was measured at 12-months in 845 of them. Outcome measures were height-for-age-z-score (HAZ), weight-for-age-z-score (WAZ) and cognition, measured in 1124 children followed up at 3-years. Cognition was measured using a validated tablet-based gamified tool named DEEP. Results: Cumulative adversities at 12-months were inversely associated with all outcomes measures at 3-years. Each unit increase in adversity score led to a decrease of 0·08 units [95% confidence interval (CI):-0·11,-0·06] in DEEP-z-score; 0·12 units [-0·14,-0·09] in HAZ and 0·11 units [-0·13,-0·09] in WAZ. 12-month HCC was inversely associated with DEEP-z-score (-0·09 [-0·16,-0·01]) and HAZ (-0·12 [-0·20,-0·04]), but the association with WAZ was not significant (p = 0·142). HCC marginally mediated the association between cumulative adversities and HAZ (proportion mediated = 0·06, p = 0·014). No evidence of mediation was found for the cognition outcome. Conclusions: Cumulative early adversities and HCC measured at 12-months have persistent negative effects on child growth and cognition at 3-years. The association between adversities and these two child outcomes were differentially mediated by HCC, with no evidence of mediation observed for the cognitive outcome. Future studies should focus on other stress biomarkers, and alternate pathways such as the immune, inflammation and cellular ageing pathways, to unpack key mechanisms underlying the established relationship between early adversities and poor child outcomes

    Characterization of the interaction between the HIV-1 Gag structural polyprotein and the cellular ribosomal protein L7 and its implication in viral nucleic acid remodeling

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    Background: In HIV-1 infected cells, the integrated viral DNA is transcribed by the host cell machinery to generate the full length HIV-1 RNA (FL RNA) that serves as mRNA encoding for the Gag and GagPol precursors. Virion formation is orchestrated by Gag, and the current view is that a specific interaction between newly made Gag molecules and FL RNA initiates the process. This in turn would cause FL RNA dimerization by the NC domain of Gag (GagNC). However the RNA chaperoning activity of unprocessed Gag is low as compared to the mature NC protein. This prompted us to search for GagNC co-factors. Results: Here we report that RPL7, a major ribosomal protein involved in translation regulation, is a partner of Gag via its interaction with the NC domain. This interaction is mediated by the NC zinc fingers and the N- and C-termini of RPL7, respectively, but seems independent of RNA binding, Gag oligomerization and its interaction with the plasma membrane. Interestingly, RPL7 is shown for the first time to exhibit a potent DNA/RNA chaperone activity higher than that of Gag. In addition, Gag and RPL7 can function in concert to drive rapid nucleic acid hybridization. Conclusions: Our results show that GagNC interacts with the ribosomal protein RPL7 endowed with nucleic acid chaperone activity, favoring the notion that RPL7 could be a Gag helper chaperoning factor possibly contributing to the start of Gag assembly.Instituto de Estudios Inmunológicos y Fisiopatológico

    Prescription practices and availability of artemisinin monotherapy in India: where do we stand?

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The World Health Organization has urged all member states to deploy artemisinin-based combination therapy and progressively withdraw oral artemisinin monotherapies from the market due to their high recrudescence rates and to reduce the risk of drug resistance. Prescription practices by physicians and the availability of oral artemisinin monotherapies with pharmacists directly affect the pattern of their use. Thus, treatment practices for malaria, with special reference to artemisinin monotherapy prescription, in selected states of India were evaluated.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Structured, tested questionnaires were used to conduct convenience surveys of physicians and pharmacists in eleven purposively selected districts across six states in 2008. In addition, exit interviews of patients with a diagnosis of uncomplicated malaria or a prescription for an anti-malarial drug were also performed. Logistic regression was used to determine patient clinical care, and institutional factors associated with artemisinin monotherapy prescription.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Five hundred and eleven physicians from 196 health facilities, 530 pharmacists, and 1, 832 patients were interviewed. Artemisinin monotherapy was available in 72.6% of pharmacies and was prescribed by physicians for uncomplicated malaria in all study states. Exit interviews among patients confirmed the high rate of use of artemisinin monotherapy with 14.8% receiving such a prescription. Case management, i.e. method of diagnosis and overall treatment, varied by state and public or private sector. Treatment in the private sector (OR 8.0, 95%CI: 3.8, 17) was the strongest predictor of artemisinin monotherapy prescription when accounting for other factors. Use of the combination therapy recommended by the national drug policy, artesunate + sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, was minimal (4.9%), with the exception of one state.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Artemisinin monotherapy use was widespread across India in 2008. The accessible sale of oral artemisinin monotherapy in retail market and an inadequate supply of recommended drugs in the public sector health facilities promoted its prescription. This study resulted in notifications to all state drug controllers in India to withdraw the oral artemisinin formulations from the market. In 2010, artesunate + sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine became the universal first-line treatment for confirmed <it>Plasmodium falciparum </it>malaria and was deployed at full scale.</p
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