1,163 research outputs found

    Optimal fiber yield strength for concrete reinforcement

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    Thesis (M.S.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 1995.Includes bibliographical references (leaves 170-173).by Nathan Shapiro.M.S

    Machine Learning Algorithms for Classification of Microcirculation Images from Septic and Non-Septic Patients

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    Sepsis is a life-threatening disease and one of the major causes of death in hospitals. Imaging of microcirculatory dysfunction is a promising approach for automated diagnosis of sepsis. We report a machine learning classifier capable of distinguishing non-septic and septic images from dark field microcirculation videos of patients. The classifier achieves an accuracy of 89.45%. The area under the receiver operating characteristics of the classifier was 0.92, the precision was 0.92 and the recall was 0.84. Codes representing the learned feature space of trained classifier were visualized using t-SNE embedding and were separable and distinguished between images from critically ill and non-septic patients. Using an unsupervised convolutional autoencoder, independent of the clinical diagnosis, we also report clustering of learned features from a compressed representation associated with healthy images and those with microcirculatory dysfunction. The feature space used by our trained classifier to distinguish between images from septic and non-septic patients has potential diagnostic application.Comment: Accepted for publication at 2018 IEEE International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications (IEEE ICMLA

    Do Newspapers Serve the State? Incumbent Party Influence on the US Press, 1869-1928

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    Using data from 1869 to 1928, we estimate the effect of party control of state governments on the entry, exit, circulation, prices, number of pages, and content of Republican and Democratic daily newspapers. We exploit changes over time in party control of the governorship and state legislatures in a differences-in-differences design. We exploit close gubernatorial elections and state legislatures with small majorities in a parallel regression-discontinuity design. Neither method reveals evidence that the party in power affects the partisan composition of the press. Our confidence intervals rule out modest effects, and we find little evidence of incumbent party influence even in times and places with high political stakes or low commercial stakes. The one exception is the Reconstruction South, an episode that we discuss in detail

    Bench-to-bedside review: Future novel diagnostics for sepsis - a systems biology approach

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    The early, accurate diagnosis and risk stratification of sepsis remains an important challenge in the critically ill. Since traditional biomarker strategies have not yielded a gold standard marker for sepsis, focus is shifting towards novel strategies that improve assessment capabilities. The combination of technological advancements and information generated through the human genome project positions systems biology at the forefront of biomarker discovery. While previously available, developments in the technologies focusing on DNA, gene expression, gene regulatory mechanisms, protein and metabolite discovery have made these tools more feasible to implement and less costly, and they have taken on an enhanced capacity such that they are ripe for utilization as tools to advance our knowledge and clinical research. Medicine is in a genome-level era that can leverage the assessment of thousands of molecular signals beyond simply measuring selected circulating proteins. Genomics is the study of the entire complement of genetic material of an individual. Epigenetics is the regulation of gene activity by reversible modifications of the DNA. Transcriptomics is the quantification of the relative levels of messenger RNA for a large number of genes in specific cells or tissues to measure differences in the expression levels of different genes, and the utilization of patterns of differential gene expression to characterize different biological states of a tissue. Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins. Metabolomics is the study of the small molecule profiles that are the terminal downstream products of the genome and consists of the total complement of all low-molecular-weight molecules that cellular processes leave behind. Taken together, these individual fields of study may be linked during a systems biology approach. There remains a valuable opportunity to deploy these technologies further in human research. The techniques described in this paper not only have the potential to increase the spectrum of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in sepsis, but they may also enable the discovery of new disease pathways. This may in turn lead us to improved therapeutic targets. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview and basic framework for clinicians and clinical researchers to better understand the 'omics technologies' to enhance further use of these valuable tools

    Sepsis-Induced myocardial dysfunction: heterogeneity of functional effects and clinical significance

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    Sepsis is a life-threatening disease state characterized by organ dysfunction and a dysregulated response to infection. The heart is one of the many organs affected by sepsis, in an entity termed sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy. This was initially used to describe a reversible depression in ejection fraction with ventricular dilation but advances in echocardiography and introduction of new techniques such as speckle tracking have led to descriptions of other common abnormalities in cardiac function associated with sepsis. This includes not only depression of systolic function, but also supranormal ejection fraction, diastolic dysfunction, and right ventricular dysfunction. These reports have led to inconsistent definitions of sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy. Just as there is heterogeneity among patients with sepsis, there is heterogeneity in the cardiac response; thus resuscitating these patients with a single approach is likely suboptimal. Many factors affect the heart in sepsis including inflammatory mediators, catecholamine responsiveness, and pathogen related toxins. This review will discuss different functional effects characterized by echocardiographic changes in sepsis and their prognostic and management implications
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