677 research outputs found

    Impact of large scale substrate roughness on giant magnetoresistive thin films

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    This dissertation presents an investigation on the effects of large scale roughness on the properties of giant magnetoresistive multilayers. The large scale roughness (sigmarms \u3e 5 nm) is introduced into giant magnetoresistive thin films through the substrate. Current-in-plane (CIP) and current-perpendicular-to-the-plane (CPP) thin films were deposited by dc magnetron and triode sputtering. All films were characterized for roughness, magnetic and electronic behavior.;Our research on both pseudo spin valves and exchange-biased spin valves shows that long length scale roughness does not have a significant detrimental effect on GMR thin films. For the CIP films, we find that a decrease in GMR correlates to an increase in minimum film resistivity. as the minimum resistivity increased, the maximum resistivity increased linearly with a slope ∼1. This suggests that the decrease in GMR may primarily be an effect of increased spin-independent scattering resulting from the increased film roughness. The CPP films showed a similar relationship between minimum and maximum resistance. Studying the effect of such large scale substrate roughness is important for applications in which GMR multilayers are deposited on non-standard substrates and buffer layers including flexible media

    Information capacity of genetic regulatory elements

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    Changes in a cell's external or internal conditions are usually reflected in the concentrations of the relevant transcription factors. These proteins in turn modulate the expression levels of the genes under their control and sometimes need to perform non-trivial computations that integrate several inputs and affect multiple genes. At the same time, the activities of the regulated genes would fluctuate even if the inputs were held fixed, as a consequence of the intrinsic noise in the system, and such noise must fundamentally limit the reliability of any genetic computation. Here we use information theory to formalize the notion of information transmission in simple genetic regulatory elements in the presence of physically realistic noise sources. The dependence of this "channel capacity" on noise parameters, cooperativity and cost of making signaling molecules is explored systematically. We find that, at least in principle, capacities higher than one bit should be achievable and that consequently genetic regulation is not limited the use of binary, or "on-off", components.Comment: 17 pages, 9 figure

    Correlation between microstructure and magnetotransport in organic semiconductor spin valve structures

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    We have studied magnetotransport in organic-inorganic hybrid multilayer junctions. In these devices, the organic semiconductor (OSC) Alq3_3 (tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum) formed a spacer layer between ferromagnetic (FM) Co and Fe layers. The thickness of the Alq3_3 layer was in the range of 50-150 nm. Positive magnetoresistance (MR) was observed at 4.2 K in a current perpendicular to plane geometry, and these effects persisted up to room temperature. The devices' microstructure was studied by X-ray reflectometry, Auger electron spectroscopy and polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR). The films show well-defined layers with modest average chemical roughness (3-5 nm) at the interface between the Alq3_3 and the surrounding FM layers. Reflectometry shows that larger MR effects are associated with smaller FM/Alq3_3 interface width (both chemical and magnetic) and a magnetically dead layer at the Alq3_3/Fe interface. The PNR data also show that the Co layer, which was deposited on top of the Alq3_3, adopts a multi-domain magnetic structure at low field and a perfect anti-parallel state is not obtained. The origins of the observed MR are discussed and attributed to spin coherent transport. A lower bound for the spin diffusion length in Alq3_3 was estimated as 43±543 \pm 5 nm at 80 K. However, the subtle correlations between microstructure and magnetotransport indicate the importance of interfacial effects in these systems.Comment: 21 pages, 11 figures and 2 table

    Direct observation of the Higgs amplitude mode in a two-dimensional quantum antiferromagnet near the quantum critical point

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    Spontaneous symmetry-breaking quantum phase transitions play an essential role in condensed matter physics. The collective excitations in the broken-symmetry phase near the quantum critical point can be characterized by fluctuations of phase and amplitude of the order parameter. The phase oscillations correspond to the massless Nambu-Goldstone modes whereas the massive amplitude mode, analogous to the Higgs boson in particle physics, is prone to decay into a pair of low-energy Nambu-Goldstone modes in low dimensions. Especially, observation of a Higgs amplitude mode in two dimensions is an outstanding experimental challenge. Here, using the inelastic neutron scattering and applying the bond-operator theory, we directly and unambiguously identify the Higgs amplitude mode in a two-dimensional S=1/2 quantum antiferromagnet C9_9H18_{18}N2_2CuBr4_4 near a quantum critical point in two dimensions. Owing to an anisotropic energy gap, it kinematically prevents such decay and the Higgs amplitude mode acquires an infinite lifetime.Comment: 12 pages, 4 figures in the main text+3 figures in Supplementary Informatio

    Effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on oral health and associated markers of systemic health:a systematic review

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    Poor oral health can impact an individual’s ability to eat and has been associated with an increased risk of non-communicable diseases. While the benefits of nitrate consumption on oral health were first proposed more than 20 years ago, no systematic review has been published examining effects of dietary nitrate on oral health. This systematic review investigated the effects of dietary nitrate on markers of oral health in vivo in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Five databases (PubMed, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and SPORTDiscus) were searched from inception until March 2023. Nine articles reporting data on 284 participants were included. Dietary nitrate was provided via beetroot juice in most studies. The duration of the interventions ranged from one day to six weeks. Dietary nitrate supplementation increased the relative abundance of several individual bacterial genera including Neisseria and Rothia. Dietary nitrate supplementation increased salivary pH and decreased salivary acidification following consumption of a sugar-sweetened beverage. Furthermore, dietary nitrate supplementation resulted in a decrease in the gingival inflammation index. The results of this systematic review suggest that dietary nitrate could represent a potential nutritional strategy to positively modify oral health by impacting the oral microbiome, altering salivary pH, and minimizing gingival inflammation

    On Hirschman and log-Sobolev inequalities in mu-deformed Segal-Bargmann analysis

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    We consider a deformation of Segal-Bargmann space and its transform. We study L^p properties of this transform and obtain entropy-entropy inequalities (Hirschman) and entropy-energy inequalities (log-Sobolev) that generalize the corresponding known results in the undeformed theory.Comment: 42 pages, 3 figure

    Religion as practices of attachment and materiality: the making of Buddhism in contemporary London

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    This article aims to explore Buddhism’s often-overlooked presence on London’s urban landscape, showing how its quietness and subtlety of approach has allowed the faith to grow largely beneath the radar. It argues that Buddhism makes claims to urban space in much the same way as it produces its faith, being as much about the practices performed and the spaces where they are enacted as it is about faith or beliefs. The research across a number of Buddhist sites in London reveals that number of people declaring themselves as Buddhists has indeed risen in recent years, following the rise of other non-traditional religions in the UK; however, this research suggests that Buddhism differs from these in several ways. Drawing on Baumann’s (2002) distinction between traditionalist and modernist approaches to Buddhism, our research reveals a growth in each of these. Nevertheless, Buddhism remains largely invisible in the urban and suburban landscape of London, adapting buildings that are already in place, with little material impact on the built environment, and has thus been less subject to contestation than other religious movements and traditions. This research contributes to a growing literature which foregrounds the importance of religion in making contemporary urban and social worlds

    Genome Sizes and the Benford Distribution

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    BACKGROUND: Data on the number of Open Reading Frames (ORFs) coded by genomes from the 3 domains of Life show the presence of some notable general features. These include essential differences between the Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes, with the number of ORFs growing linearly with total genome size for the former, but only logarithmically for the latter. RESULTS: Simply by assuming that the (protein) coding and non-coding fractions of the genome must have different dynamics and that the non-coding fraction must be particularly versatile and therefore be controlled by a variety of (unspecified) probability distribution functions (pdf's), we are able to predict that the number of ORFs for Eukaryotes follows a Benford distribution and must therefore have a specific logarithmic form. Using the data for the 1000+ genomes available to us in early 2010, we find that the Benford distribution provides excellent fits to the data over several orders of magnitude. CONCLUSIONS: In its linear regime the Benford distribution produces excellent fits to the Prokaryote data, while the full non-linear form of the distribution similarly provides an excellent fit to the Eukaryote data. Furthermore, in their region of overlap the salient features are statistically congruent. This allows us to interpret the difference between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes as the manifestation of the increased demand in the biological functions required for the larger Eukaryotes, to estimate some minimal genome sizes, and to predict a maximal Prokaryote genome size on the order of 8-12 megabasepairs. These results naturally allow a mathematical interpretation in terms of maximal entropy and, therefore, most efficient information transmission
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