1,422 research outputs found

    Quantum, classical symmetries and action-angle variables by factorization of superintegrable systems

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    The purpose of this work is to present a method based on the factorizations used in one dimensional quantum mechanics in order to find the symmetries of quantum and classical superintegrable systems in higher dimensions. We apply this procedure to the harmonic oscillator and Kepler-Coulomb systems to show the differences with other more standard approaches. We have described in detail the basic ingredients to make explicit the parallelism of classical and quantum treatments. One of the most interesting results is the finding of action-angle variables as a natural component of the classical sysmmetries within this formalism.Comment: 21 pages, 3 figure

    basics on water injection process for gasoline engines

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    Abstract Actual and future limits to the global CO2 emissions and the necessity of a further reduction of the fossil non-renewable fuels have moved the automotive engine research toward new solutions. With focus on reciprocating internal combustion engines, the mass of CO2 emitted in the atmosphere is a function of the fuel consumption. Therefore, the designers are focusing their attention on both the drop of passive resistances and the improvement of the engine efficiency. As far as the latter is concerned, the reduction of in-cylinder temperature and the adoption of stoichiometric combustion on the full range of engine operation map are the most investigated solutions. Water injection is thought to help in fulfilling these goals thus contributing towards more efficient engines. The aim of the present work is to understand the basic thermophysical and chemical fundamentals governing the water injection application in modern downsized spark ignited engines. The investigation has been carried out with aid of CFD simulation by using AVL FIRE v.2017 solver

    Analisi di costo efficacia nella terapia della BPCO

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    Current practice guidelines for the treatment of COPD recommend the use of combined inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting bronchodilators in severe and very severe patients (GOLD stages III and IV). OBJECTIVES: To analyze the economical and clinical impact of this recommendation, the affordability of its widespread application, as well as the relative pharmacoeconomical performance of the available options for severe and very severe COPD in Italy. METHODS: Published data on the Italian COPD population were fitted in a disease progression model based on a Markov chain representing severity stages and death. Alternative therapeutic options (salmeterol/ fluticasone - SF, formoterol/budesonide - FB, salmeterol alone - S, fluticasone alone - F and control - C) were represented as competing arms in a decision tree. Efficacy data from international trials were expressed in terms of risk reduction. Clinical parameters used were number of exacerbations and symptom-free days. Direct and indirect costs were considered and valued according to present prices and tarifs. The analyses were conducted from National Health System, societal and patient perspectives with time horizons of 1,5, and 10 years, and lifelong. RESULTS: The yearly total direct costs of treating COPD patients in Italy is estimated in approximately 7 billion Euro, with a mean cost/patient/year around 2,400 Euro. Mean survival of the cohort is 11,5 years. The C and F strategies are dominated (i.e. are associated with worse outcomes and higher costs) by all alternatives. S/F and F/B are the most effective strategies, with a slight clinical superiority of the latter, but are also marginally more expensive than S. Incremental cost/effectiveness of S/F vs. S is 679,55 Euro/avoided exacerbation and 3,31Euro/gained symptom-free day. CONCLUSIONS: The recommended use of combined inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting bronchodilators for severe and very severe COPD patients, as compared with current practice, has the potential of improving clinical outcomes without increasing health care costs

    Decoration Increases the Conspicuousness of Raptor Nests

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    Avian nests are frequently concealed or camouflaged, but a number of species builds noticeable nests or use conspicuous materials for nest decoration. In most cases, nest decoration has a role in mate choice or provides thermoregulatory or antiparasitic benefits. In territorial species however, decorations may serve additional or complementary functions, such as extended phenotypic signaling of nest-site occupancy and social status to potential intruders. The latter may benefit both signaler and receiver by minimizing the risk of aggressive interactions, especially in organisms with dangerous weaponry. Support for this hypothesis was recently found in a population of black kites (Milvus migrans), a territorial raptor that decorates its nest with white artificial materials. However, the crucial assumption that nest decorations increased nest-site visibility to conspecifics was not assessed, a key aspect given that black kite nests may be well concealed within the canopy. Here, we used an unmanned aircraft system to take pictures of black kite nests, with and without an experimentally placed decoration, from different altitudes and distances simulating the perspective of a flying and approaching, prospecting intruder. The pictures were shown to human volunteers through a standardized routine to determine whether detection rates varied according the nest decoration status and distance. Decorated nests consistently showed a higher detection frequency and a lower detection-latency, compared to undecorated versions of the same nests. Our results confirm that nest decoration in this species may act as a signaling medium that enhances nest visibility for aerial receivers, even at large distances. This finding complements previous work on this communication system, which showed that nest decoration was a threat informing trespassing conspecifics on the social dominance, territory quality and fighting capabilities of the signaler

    Modeling of Hexavalent Chromium Removal with Hydrophobically Modified Cellulose Nanofibers

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    Cellulose nanofibers (CNF) are sustainable nanomaterials, obtained by the mechanical disintegration of cellulose, whose properties make them an interesting adsorbent material due to their high specific area and active groups. CNF are easily functionalized to optimize the performance for different uses. The hypothesis of this work is that hydrophobization can be used to improve their ability as adsorbents. Therefore, hydrophobic CNF was applied to adsorb hexavalent chromium from wastewater. CNF was synthetized by TEMPO-mediated oxidation, followed by mechanical disintegration. Hydrophobization was performed using methyl trimetoxysilane (MTMS) as a hydrophobic coating agent. The adsorption treatment of hexavalent chromium with hydrophobic CNF was optimized by studying the influence of contact time, MTMS dosage (0‚Äď3 mmol¬∑g ‚ąí1 CNF), initial pH of the wastewater (3‚Äď9), initial chromium concentration (0.10‚Äď50 mg¬∑L ‚ąí1 ), and adsorbent dosage (250‚Äď1000 mg CNF¬∑L ‚ąí1 ). Furthermore, the corresponding adsorption mechanism was identified. Complete adsorption of hexavalent chromium was achieved with CNF hydrophobized with 1.5 mmol MTMS¬∑g ‚ąí1 CNF with the faster adsorption kinetic, which proved the initial hypothesis that hydrophobic CNF improves the adsorption capacity of hydrophilic CNF. The optimal adsorption conditions were pH 3 and the adsorbent dosage was over 500 mg¬∑L ‚ąí1 . The maximum removal was found for the initial concentrations of hexavalent chromium below 1 mg¬∑L ‚ąí1 and a maximum adsorption capacity of 70.38 mg¬∑g ‚ąí1 was achieved. The kinetic study revealed that pseudo-second order kinetics was the best fitting model at a low concentration while the intraparticle diffusion model fit better for higher concentrations, describing a multi-step mechanism of hexavalent chromium onto the adsorbent surface. The Freundlich isotherm was the best adjustment model.TRUEComunidad de MadridMinisterio de Econom√≠a y Competitividadpu

    El error de observación y su influencia en los Análisis morfológicos de restos óseos humanos. Datos de variación continua

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    ¬† ¬† RESUMEN: La utilizaci6n de m√©todos rnorfom√©tricos se constituy6 a lo largo del siglo XX en una de las aproxirnaciones m√°s ernpleadas en el carnpo de la antropolog√≠a biol√≥gica. Junto con el gran desarrollo alcanzado por la rnisma se generaliz√≥ el ernpleo de bases de datos generadas por otros investigadores con fines cornparativos. Por este motivo se ha hecho necesario elaborar estrategias metodol6gicas que permitan evaluar e incrementar la precisi6n en las observaciones tomadas por uno o rn6s observadores. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar el error intra e interobservador en el relevarniento de variables m√©tricas craneofaciales y la influencia de estos en el an√°lisis de relaciones biol√≥gicas poblacionales. Con esta finalidad se elabor6 un dise√Īo experimental de bloques completos aleatorios con medidas repetidas. Se analiz√≥ una muestra de 20 cr√°neos procedentes del Valle de Rio Negro - 10 con deformaci6n pseudocircular y 10 con deformaci√≥n planol√°mbdica-. Cuatro observadores registraron un conjunto de ocho variables m√©tricas craneofaciales. Las observaciones fueron comparadas mediante pruebas estad√≠sticas de correlaci√≥n intraclase y ANOVA de medidas repetidas. A su vez, se efectuaron an√°lisis multivariados con el fin de conocer las relaciones entre las muestras de cr√°neos deformados medidas por los diferentes observadores. Los resultados obtenidos indican que hubo un incremento en la consistencia de las observaciones efectuadas por cada observador, que el error interobservador fue mayor entre los observadores no entrenados y que las inconsistencias en las observaciones afectaron los resultados obtenidos en los an√°lisis multivariados tendientes a conocer las relaciones entre las muestras. Rev. Arg. Antrop. Biol. 6(1): 61-75, 2004 ¬† ABSTRACT: The application of morphometric methods became one of the most frequently used approaches in the field of Biological Anthropology throughout ¬†the 20th century. Concurrently with this development, the use of databases generated by different researchers became widespread in comparative studies. Therefore, it has become necessary to develop methodological strategies that allow an evaluation of the observations made by one or more observers and¬† increase their accuracy. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the intra- and interobserver error in the scoring of craniofacial metric variables and its influence on the analysis of biological relationships between populations. For this purpose, an experimental design of random complete blocks with repetitions was applied. A sample of 20 skulls from Rio Negro Valley - 10 with pseudo-circular deformation and 10 with plane-lambdic deformation- was analyzed. Four observers recorded a set of eight craniofacial metric variables. The observations were statistically compared by means of intra class correlation tests and repeated measures ANOVA. Multivariate analyses were also performed to assess the relationships among the samples of deformed skulls measured by different observers. Our results indicate an increase in the consistency of the observations made by each observer, higher inter-observer error values among non-trained observers, and the influence of the inconsistencies among observations on the results of the multivariate analyses designed for the assessment of inter-sample relationships. Rev. Arg. Antrop. Biol. 6(1): 6 1-75. 2004

    El error de observación y su influencia en los análisis morfológicos de restos óseos humanos : Datos de variación discreta

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    A partir de la d√©cada de 1960 se increment√≥ el empleo de los rasgos no m√©tricos del cr√°neo en los an√°lisis de relaciones poblacionales. Si bien uno de los supuestos en que se bas√≥ el uso de estos rasgos es la facilidad de estandarizar su registro, varios trabajos sugieren que el error interobservador en los rasgos discretos es elevado. En consecuencia, los objetivos del trabajo son evaluar el error intra e interobservador en el registro de rasgos craneales no m√©tricos y analizar el efecto del error interobservador sobre las distancias biol√≥gicas calculadas. Con este fin, se analiz√≥ una muestra arqueol√≥gica procedente del Valle inferior del R√≠o Negro -10 con deformaci√≥n pseudocircular y 10 con deformaci√≥n planol√°mbdica-. Se seleccionaron ocho variables discretas del cr√°neo que fueron relevadas por cuatro observadores. El error de observaci√≥n fue evaluado mediante un dise√Īo experimental de bloques aleatorios con tres repeticiones y el empleo del √≠ndice Kappa y la prueba de McNemar. La distancia biol√≥gica entre las dos muestras se estim√≥ mediante la Medida Media de Divergencia y un an√°lisis de escalamiento multidimensional. Los resultados obtenidos indican que el error intraobservador disminuy√≥ mediante la aplicaci√≥n del dise√Īo experimental, que el error interobservador se increment√≥ en las sucesivas series y que las diferencias entre los observadores alteraron los resultados de las medidas de distancia calculadas entre las muestras.Since the early 1960s, there was an increasing interest in the application of non-metric cranial traits to the analysis of relationships between populations. One of the assumptions for the use of these traits is based upon the simplicity to standardize the recordings. However, several papers suggest that the interobserver error on such recordings is high. Therefore, the goals of this paper are to evaluate the intra and interobserver error on the scoring of non-metric cranial traits, as well as to analyze the effect of the interobserver error in the biological distances estimated with them. An archeological sample (n=20) from the lower stretch Valley of R√≠o Negro Valley (R√≠o Negro Province, Argentina) was analyzed. Eight discrete variables from the skull were recorded independently by four observers. The observation error was evaluated by means of a randomized complete blocks design, with three repetitions, and employing the Kappa index and the McNemar test. The biological distance between the two samples was estimated through the Mean Measure of Divergence and a multidimensional scaling test. Our results indicate that 1) the intraobserver error diminishes with the application of observational designs; 2) the interobserver error increases in successive series and; 3) the differences among observers modify the results of calculated biodistance between samples.Asociaci√≥n de Antropolog√≠a Biol√≥gica de la Rep√ļblica Argentina (AABRA

    El error de observación y su influencia en los análisis morfológicos de restos óseos humanos : Datos de variación continua

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    La utilizaci√≥n de m√©todos morfom√©tricos se constituy√≥ a lo largo del siglo XX en una de las aproximaciones m√°s empleadas en el campo de la antropolog√≠a biol√≥gica. Junto con el gran desarrollo alcanzado por la misma se generaliz√≥ el empleo de bases de datos generadas por otros investigadores con fines comparativos. Por este motivo, se ha hecho necesario elaborar estrategias metodol√≥gicas, que permitan evaluar e incrementar la precisi√≥n en las observaciones tomadas por uno o m√°s observadores. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar el error intra e interobservador en el relevamiento de variables m√©tricas craneofaciales y la influencia de estos en el an√°lisis de relaciones biol√≥gicas poblacionales. Con esta finalidad se elabor√≥ un dise√Īo experimental de bloques completos aleatorios con medidas repetidas. Se analiz√≥ una muestra de 20 cr√°neos procedentes del Valle de R√≠o Negro -10 con deformaci√≥n pseudocircular y 10 con deformaci√≥n planol√°mbdica-. Cuatro observadores registraron un conjunto de ocho variables m√©tricas craneofaciales. Las observaciones fueron comparadas mediante pruebas estad√≠sticas de correlaci√≥n intraclase y ANOVA de medidas repetidas. A su vez, se efectuaron an√°lisis multivariados con el fin de conocer las relaciones entre las muestras de cr√°neos deformados medidas por los diferentes observadores. Los resultados obtenidos indican que hubo un incremento en la consistencia de las observaciones efectuadas por cada observador, que el error interobservador fue mayor entre los observadores no entrenados y que las inconsistencias en las observaciones afectaron los resultados obtenidos en los an√°lisis multivariados tendientes a conocer las relaciones entre las muestras.The application of morphometric methods became one of the most frequently used approaches in the field of Biological Anthropology throughout the 20th century. Concurrently with this development, the use of databases generated by different researchers became widespread in comparative studies. Therefore, it has become necessary to develop methodological strategies that allow an evaluation of the observations made by one or more observers and increase their accuracy. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the intra- and inter-observer error in the scoring of craniofacial metric variables and its influence on the analysis of biological relationships between populations. For this purpose, an experimental design of random complete blocks with repetitions was applied. A sample of 20 skulls from Rio Negro Valley -10 with pseudo-circular deformation and 10 with plane-lambdic deformation- was analyzed. Four observers recorded a set of eight craniofacial metric variables. The observations were statistically compared by means of intraclass correlation tests and repeated measures ANOVA. Multivariate analyses were also performed to assess the relationship among the samples of deformed skulls measured by different observers. Our results indicate an increase in the consistency of the observations made by each observer, higher inter-observer error values among non-trained observers, and the influence of the inconsistencies among observations on the results of the multivariate analyses designed for the assessment of inter-sample relationships.Asociaci√≥n de Antropolog√≠a Biol√≥gica de la Rep√ļblica Argentina (AABRA

    Authors' response: Mezei et al's "Comments on a recent case-control study of malignant mesothelioma of the pericardium and the tunica vaginalis testis"

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    : Mezei et al's letter (1) is an opportunity to provide more details about our study on pericardial and tunica vaginalis testis (TVT) mesothelioma (2), which is based on the Italian national mesothelioma registry (ReNaM): a surveillance system on mesothelioma, with individual asbestos exposure assessment. Incidence of pericardial mesothelioma has been estimated around 0.5 and 0.2 cases per 10 million person-years in men and women, respectively, and around 1 case for TVT mesothelioma. ReNaM collected 138 cases thanks to its long period of observation (1993-2015) and national coverage. Conducting a population-based case-control study with incidence-density sampling of controls across Italy and over a 23 year time-span should have been planned in 1993 and would have been beyond feasibility and ReNaM scope. We rather exploited two existing series of controls (3). The resulting incomplete time- and spatial matching of cases and controls is a limitation of our study and has been acknowledged in our article. The analysis of case-control studies can nevertheless be accomplished in logistic models accounting for the variables of interest, in both individually and frequency matched studies (4). Furthermore, analyses restricted to (i) regions with enrolled controls, (ii) cases with definite diagnosis, (iii) incidence period 2000-2015, and (iv) subjects born before 1950 have been provided in the manuscript, confirming the strength of the association with asbestos exposure (supplemental material tables S4-7). Following Mezei et al's suggestion, we performed further sensitivity analyses by restriction to regions with controls and fitting conditional regression models using risk-sets made of combinations of age and year of birth categories (5-year classes for both). We confirmed positive associations with occupational exposure to asbestos of pericardial mesothelioma, with odds ratios (OR) (adjusted for region) of 9.16 among women [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-150] and 5.63 (95% CI 1.02-31.0) among men; for TVT mesothelioma the OR was 7.70 (95% CI 2.89-20.5). Using risk sets of age categories and introducing year of birth (5-year categories) as a covariate (dummy variables) the OR were similar: OR (adjusted for region) of 9.17 among women (95% CI 0.56-150) and 5.76 (95% CI 1.07-31.0) among men; for TVT the OR was 9.86 (95% CI 3.46-28.1). Possible bias from incomplete geographical overlap between cases and controls has been addressed in the paper (table S4) and above. In spatially restricted analyses, OR were larger than in those including cases from the whole country, indicating that bias was towards the null. Mezei et al further noted that "the regional distribution of controls is different from that of person-time observed". This objection is not relevant because the above analyses were adjusted by region. Our controls were provided by a population-based study on pleural mesothelioma (called MISEM) and a hospital-based study on cholangiocarcinoma (called CARA). In MISEM, the response rate was 48.4%, a low but not unexpected rate as participation among population controls is usually lower and has been declining over time (5). It is important to underline that ReNaM applied the same questionnaire that was used for interviews and carried out the same exposure assessment as both MISEM and CARA. As repeatedly stated in ReNaM papers (6-7), each regional operating center assesses asbestos exposure based on the individual questionnaire, other available information, and knowledge of local industries. Occupational exposure to asbestos is classified as definite, probable or possible. Occupational exposure is (i) definite when the subject`s work was reported or otherwise known to have involved the use of asbestos or asbestos-containing materials (MCA); (ii) probable when subjects worked in factories where asbestos or MCA were used, but their personal exposure could not be documented; and (iii) possible when they were employed in industrial activities known to entail the use of asbestos or MCA. Hence, the definite and probable categories are closer to one another and were combined in our analyses. In any case, restricting analyses to subjects with definite occupational exposure and using each set of controls separately, as suggested by Mezei et al, yielded elevated OR for TVT and pericardial mesothelioma among men using both the above described modelling strategies; the OR could not be calculated for women. There were 70 (25 pericardial and 45 TVT) occupationally exposed mesothelioma cases. In population-based studies, analyses by occupation are limited by the low prevalence of most specific jobs. As briefly reported in our paper, for purely descriptive purposes, the industrial activity of exposure (cases may have multiple exposures), were construction (22 exposures, 7 and 15 for pericardial and TVT mesotheliomas, respectively), steel mills and other metal working industries (4 and 11), textile industries (2 and 3), and agriculture (2 and 5); other sectors had lower exposure frequencies. The absence of industries like asbestos-cement production, shipbuilding and railway carriages production/repair should not be surprising and had already been observed (7). In the Italian multicenter cohort study of asbestos workers (8), given the person-years of observation accrued by workers employed in these industries and gender- and site-specific crude incidence rates, approximately 0.1 case of pericardial and 0.2 of TVT mesothelioma would have been expected from 1970 to 2010. Even increasing ten-fold such figures to account for higher occupational risks among these workers would not change much. Asbestos exposure in agriculture has been repeatedly discussed in ReNaM reports (9: pages 70, 73, 128, 164 and 205). Exposure opportunities included the presence of asbestos in wine production, reuse of hessian bags previously containing asbestos, or construction and maintenance of rural buildings. Similarly, mesothelioma cases and agricultural workers exposed to asbestos have been noted in France (10). In conclusion, the additional analyses we performed according to Mezei et al's suggestions confirm the association between asbestos exposure and pericardial and TVT mesothelioma, supporting the causal role of asbestos for all mesotheliomas. ReNaM`s continuing surveillance system with national coverage is a precious platform for launching analytical studies on pleural and extra pleural mesothelioma. References 1. Mezei G, Chang ET, Mowat FS, Moolgavkar SH. Comments on a recent case-control study of malignant mesothelioma of the pericardium and the tunica vaginalis testis Scand J Work Environ Health. 2021;47(1):85-86. https://doi.org/10.5271/3909 2. Marinaccio A, Consonni D, Mensi C, Mirabelli D, Migliore E, Magnani C et al.; ReNaM Working Group. Association between asbestos exposure and pericardial and tunica vaginalis testis malignant mesothelioma: a case-control study and epidemiological remarks. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2020;46(6):609-617. https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3895. 3. Greenland S. Control-initiated case-control studies. Int J Epidemiol 1985 Mar;14(1):130-4. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/14.1.130. 4. Pearce N. Analysis of matched case-control studies. BMJ 2016 Feb;352:i969. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i969. 5. Bigert C, Gustavsson P, Straif K, Pesch B, Br√ľning T, Kendzia B et al. Lung cancer risk among cooks when accounting for tobacco smoking: a pooled analysis of case-control studies from Europe, Canada, New Zealand, and China. J Occup Environ Med 2015 Feb;57(2):202-9. https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000337. 6. Marinaccio A, Binazzi A, Marzio DD, Scarselli A, Verardo M, Mirabelli D et al.; ReNaM Working Group. Pleural malignant mesothelioma epidemic: incidence, modalities of asbestos exposure and occupations involved from the Italian National Register. Int J Cancer 2012 May;130(9):2146-54. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.26229. 7. Marinaccio A, Binazzi A, Di Marzio D, Scarselli A, Verardo M, Mirabelli D et al. Incidence of extrapleural malignant mesothelioma and asbestos exposure, from the Italian national register. Occup Environ Med 2010 Nov;67(11):760-5. https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.2009.051466. 8. Ferrante D, Chellini E, Merler E, Pavone V, Silvestri S, Miligi L et al.; the working group. Italian pool of asbestos workers cohorts: mortality trends of asbestos-related neoplasms after long time since first exposure. Occup Environ Med 2017 Dec;74(12):887-98. https://doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2016-104100. 9. ReNaM VI Report. Available from: https://www.inail.it/cs/internet/docs/alg-pubbl-registro-nazionale-mesoteliomi-6-rapporto.pdf. Italian 10. Marant Micallef C, Shield KD, Vignat J, Baldi I, Charbotel B, Fervers B et al. Cancers in France in 2015 attributable to occupational exposures. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2019 Jan;222(1):22-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2018.07.015

    Epidemiological patterns of asbestos exposure and spatial clusters of incident cases of malignant mesothelioma from the Italian national registry.

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    BACKGROUND: Previous ecological spatial studies of malignant mesothelioma cases, mostly based on mortality data, lack reliable data on individual exposure to asbestos, thus failing to assess the contribution of different occupational and environmental sources in the determination of risk excess in specific areas. This study aims to identify territorial clusters of malignant mesothelioma through a Bayesian spatial analysis and to characterize them by the integrated use of asbestos exposure information retrieved from the Italian national mesothelioma registry (ReNaM). METHODS: In the period 1993 to 2008, 15,322 incident cases of all-site malignant mesothelioma were recorded and 11,852 occupational, residential and familial histories were obtained by individual interviews. Observed cases were assigned to the municipality of residence at the time of diagnosis and compared to those expected based on the age-specific rates of the respective geographical area. A spatial cluster analysis was performed for each area applying a Bayesian hierarchical model. Information about modalities and economic sectors of asbestos exposure was analyzed for each cluster. RESULTS: Thirty-two clusters of malignant mesothelioma were identified and characterized using the exposure data. Asbestos cement manufacturing industries and shipbuilding and repair facilities represented the main sources of asbestos exposure, but a major contribution to asbestos exposure was also provided by sectors with no direct use of asbestos, such as non-asbestos textile industries, metal engineering and construction. A high proportion of cases with environmental exposure was found in clusters where asbestos cement plants were located or a natural source of asbestos (or asbestos-like) fibers was identifiable. Differences in type and sources of exposure can also explain the varying percentage of cases occurring in women among clusters. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates shared exposure patterns in territorial clusters of malignant mesothelioma due to single or multiple industrial sources, with major implications for public health policies, health surveillance, compensation procedures and site remediation programs
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