4,551 research outputs found

    Communication-Efficient On-Device Machine Learning: Federated Distillation and Augmentation under Non-IID Private Data

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    On-device machine learning (ML) enables the training process to exploit a massive amount of user-generated private data samples. To enjoy this benefit, inter-device communication overhead should be minimized. With this end, we propose federated distillation (FD), a distributed model training algorithm whose communication payload size is much smaller than a benchmark scheme, federated learning (FL), particularly when the model size is large. Moreover, user-generated data samples are likely to become non-IID across devices, which commonly degrades the performance compared to the case with an IID dataset. To cope with this, we propose federated augmentation (FAug), where each device collectively trains a generative model, and thereby augments its local data towards yielding an IID dataset. Empirical studies demonstrate that FD with FAug yields around 26x less communication overhead while achieving 95-98% test accuracy compared to FL.Comment: presented at the 32nd Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS 2018), 2nd Workshop on Machine Learning on the Phone and other Consumer Devices (MLPCD 2), Montr\'eal, Canad

    DeepStory: Video Story QA by Deep Embedded Memory Networks

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    Question-answering (QA) on video contents is a significant challenge for achieving human-level intelligence as it involves both vision and language in real-world settings. Here we demonstrate the possibility of an AI agent performing video story QA by learning from a large amount of cartoon videos. We develop a video-story learning model, i.e. Deep Embedded Memory Networks (DEMN), to reconstruct stories from a joint scene-dialogue video stream using a latent embedding space of observed data. The video stories are stored in a long-term memory component. For a given question, an LSTM-based attention model uses the long-term memory to recall the best question-story-answer triplet by focusing on specific words containing key information. We trained the DEMN on a novel QA dataset of children's cartoon video series, Pororo. The dataset contains 16,066 scene-dialogue pairs of 20.5-hour videos, 27,328 fine-grained sentences for scene description, and 8,913 story-related QA pairs. Our experimental results show that the DEMN outperforms other QA models. This is mainly due to 1) the reconstruction of video stories in a scene-dialogue combined form that utilize the latent embedding and 2) attention. DEMN also achieved state-of-the-art results on the MovieQA benchmark.Comment: 7 pages, accepted for IJCAI 201

    Epidemic Response Coordination Networks in “Living Documents”

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    Response plans developed thoroughly are suggestive of a successful action, but there is a gap in the literature with respect to the way concerted efforts among organizations are planned and change during crises. Using organizational network data extracted from the South Korean government’s MERS response manuals, we examined the changes in the response coordination network planned during the epidemic’s distinct stages. The greatest difference in predicting tie formation was found in the networks planned before the event and revised during the outbreak. Local and governmental actors tend to form more ties consistently in the revised manuals. Two actors that are intended to transfer medical and/or personnel resources tend to form more ties across all stages. These findings suggest that transferring material and/or human resources are key activities in the epidemic response and planners tend to increase the connection of local and governmental actors over time

    SplitAMC: Split Learning for Robust Automatic Modulation Classification

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    Automatic modulation classification (AMC) is a technology that identifies a modulation scheme without prior signal information and plays a vital role in various applications, including cognitive radio and link adaptation. With the development of deep learning (DL), DL-based AMC methods have emerged, while most of them focus on reducing computational complexity in a centralized structure. This centralized learning-based AMC (CentAMC) violates data privacy in the aspect of direct transmission of client-side raw data. Federated learning-based AMC (FedeAMC) can bypass this issue by exchanging model parameters, but causes large resultant latency and client-side computational load. Moreover, both CentAMC and FedeAMC are vulnerable to large-scale noise occured in the wireless channel between the client and the server. To this end, we develop a novel AMC method based on a split learning (SL) framework, coined SplitAMC, that can achieve high accuracy even in poor channel conditions, while guaranteeing data privacy and low latency. In SplitAMC, each client can benefit from data privacy leakage by exchanging smashed data and its gradient instead of raw data, and has robustness to noise with the help of high scale of smashed data. Numerical evaluations validate that SplitAMC outperforms CentAMC and FedeAMC in terms of accuracy for all SNRs as well as latency.Comment: to be presented at IEEE VTC2023-Sprin

    Improved Chest Anomaly Localization without Pixel-level Annotation via Image Translation Network Application in Pseudo-paired Registration Domain

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    Image translation based on a generative adversarial network (GAN-IT) is a promising method for the precise localization of abnormal regions in chest X-ray images (AL-CXR) even without pixel-level annotation. However, heterogeneous unpaired datasets undermine existing methods to extract key features and distinguish normal from abnormal cases, resulting in inaccurate and unstable AL-CXR. To address this problem, we propose an improved two-stage GAN-IT involving registration and data augmentation. For the first stage, we introduce an advanced deep-learning-based registration technique that virtually and reasonably converts unpaired data into paired data for learning registration maps, by sequentially utilizing linear-based global and uniform coordinate transformation and AI-based non-linear coordinate fine-tuning. This approach enables the independent and complex coordinate transformation of each detailed location of the lung while recognizing the entire lung structure, thereby achieving higher registration performance with resolving inherent artifacts caused by unpaired conditions. For the second stage, we apply data augmentation to diversify anomaly locations by swapping the left and right lung regions on the uniform registered frames, further improving the performance by alleviating imbalance in data distribution showing left and right lung lesions. The proposed method is model agnostic and shows consistent AL-CXR performance improvement in representative AI models. Therefore, we believe GAN-IT for AL-CXR can be clinically implemented by using our basis framework, even if learning data are scarce or difficult for the pixel-level disease annotation