98 research outputs found

    I nuovi padroni della terra: mercati, diritti e politiche alimentari

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    Il presente lavoro ha l’obiettivo di realizzare una ricognizione sul recente fenomeno delle acquisizioni su larga scala di terra. A partire dalla crisi alimentare del 2007-2008, conseguenza di un aumento della volatilità e del livello dei prezzi delle più importanti commodity agricole sui mercati internazionali, investitori tradizionali del agribusiness e nuovi attori del settore finanziario ed energetico hanno cominciato ad acquisire il controllo su singificative porzioni di terra nei paesi in via di sviluppo, con l’obiettivo prevalente di realizzare coltivazioni agricole. Il rinnovato interesse verso la produzione agricola è il risultato di importanti cambiamenti avvenuti nei mercati negli ultimi anni. Ci riferiamo, in particolare, alla crescente domanda di prodotti agricoli per realizzare biocombustibili, guidata dalle politiche energetiche e ambientali di importanti paesi come gli Stati Uniti e quelli europei, e al ruolo sempre più importante svolto dalla finanza internazionale alla ricerca di nuovi asset su cui investire e attirata dalle previsioni al rialzo sui prezzi agricoli nei prossimi anni. La domanda a cui si è cercato di rispondere è se questi nuovi investimenti esteri in agricoltura rappresentino o meno un’opportunità per lo sviluppo dei Paesi poveri. A tal fine si è analizzata la complessa e contraddittoria relazione esistente tra la produzione di commodity e lo sviluppo nei Paesi poveri a partire dal secondo dopo guerra. Questa prospettiva storica ci ha permesso di comprendere le cause profonde della crisi alimentare del 2007-2008 e, soprattutto, gli elementi di novità e di cogliere alcune tracce di possibili scenari futuri nelle dinamiche dei sistemi agricoli e alimentari. Coerentemente con questa impostazione abbiamo deciso di analizzare il fenomeno della nuova corsa alla terra sia nelle conseguenze che produce nel breve periodo, ricorrendo alla letteratura che ne analizza gli impatti di sviluppo, che nelle sue implicazioni di medio e lungo periodo, analizzando il dibattito teorico che si è sviluppato sul tema. Ne emerso un quadro molto articolato, che ha evidenziato sia i limiti della ricerca svolta negli ultimi anni, a livello teorico nei casi studio specifici, ma anche i significativi risultati raggiunti, in particolare nel numero di evidenze raccolte che hanno mostrato gli impatti negativi di questo tipo di investimenti non a caso definiti come “land grabbing”. L’analisi della nuova corsa alla terra ha fatto emergere in modo evidente i limiti di carattere qualitativo, legati agli impatti negativi che producono (land grabbing), e quantitativo, rappresentando in realtà una quota ridotta del totale degli investimenti in agricoltura, di questo tipo di investimenti, nonché le sfide che pone la loro governance. Inizialmente accolti positivamente dalla Comunità internazionale in quanto forieri di un’inversione del trend storico decrescente registrato negli ultimi decenni nei paesi in via di sviluppo, quest investimenti non rappresentano una risposta efficace a gli enormi problemi di sicurezza alimentare che vive una quota singificativa della popolazione mondiale. In conclusione del presente lavoro possiamo affermare che per rispondere alla sfida di sfamare il mondo non servono più investimenti di land grabbing ma è necessario ripensare il ruolo dei mercati, gli obiettivi delle politiche pubbliche e ridare centralità ai diritti, ripartendo dalla piccola agricoltura contadina, la spina dorsale della produzione alimentare globale

    Effects of non-pharmacological or pharmacological interventions on cognition and brain plasticity of aging individuals.

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    Brain aging and aging-related neurodegenerative disorders are major health challenges faced by modern societies. Brain aging is associated with cognitive and functional decline and represents the favourable background for the onset and development of dementia. Brain aging is associated with early and subtle anatomo-functional physiological changes that often precede the appearance of clinical signs of cognitive decline. Neuroimaging approaches unveiled the functional correlates of these alterations and helped in the identification of therapeutic targets that can be potentially useful in counteracting age-dependent cognitive decline. A growing body of evidence supports the notion that cognitive stimulation and aerobic training can preserve and enhance operational skills in elderly individuals as well as reduce the incidence of dementia. This review aims at providing an extensive and critical overview of the most recent data that support the efficacy of non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions aimed at enhancing cognition and brain plasticity in healthy elderly individuals as well as delaying the cognitive decline associated with dementia

    Truly Scalable K-Truss and Max-Truss Algorithms for Community Detection in Graphs

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    Intersigmoid hernia. A forgotten diagnosis, a systematic review of the literature over anatomical, diagnostic, surgical, and medicolegal aspects

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    Introduction. Intersigmoid hernia is a hernia of the small bowel into the intersigmoid fossa. It is well known to be a rare condition. Recent reports reveal that the preoperative differentiation of intersigmoid hernias is difficult and the diagnosis is often confirmed during the laparotomic exploration. Due to the vague clinical manifestation in most cases, the surgical treatment is frequently delayed. Materials and Methods. In this study, we systematically reviewed the literature up to 2019 covering 114 studies and 124 patients with an intersigmoid hernia. &e purpose of this work is to improve the understanding of the anatomical aspects, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of intersigmoid hernia so as to assist the preoperative differentiation of these hernias when presented as acute abdomen in the emergency department. Results. &e diameter of the intersigmoid recess was reported with mean 2.65 cm (range 1–10 cm, SD 1.15 cm) and the length of the incarcerated small intestine was between 3 cm (min) and 150 cm (max): mean 25.25 cm, SD 35.04 cm. &e diameter of the sigmoid recess was greater in patients who underwent resection due to strangulation (mean 3.31 cm, SD 1.53 cm) compared to those who underwent only reduction of the hernia (mean 2.35 cm, SD 0.74 cm). &e time from onset to operation was less in patients undergoing resection surgery due to throttling (mean 3.03 days, SD 3.01 days) compared to those who underwent only a reduction of hernia incarceration (mean 8.49 days, SD 6.83 days). Conclusion. Intersigmoid hernia is often a forgotten diagnosis and a clinical challange due to its anatomical characteristics

    The role of cooperation amongst cities, universities, research bodies and civil society organizations Food on Urban Policies in Africa as innovative actions in the cadre of the Milan Urban Food Policy Pact.

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    Within the framework of the international debate focusing on experiences emerging from cities in the global North, this paper aims to explore urban food policies under the lens of a global South perspective, paying particular attention to African cities and taking into account the common elements they present -compared with other urban contexts and territories- but also the specificities and uniqueness of them with respect to the process of urbanization and the linkages existing amongst cities and food.Urban food policies are powerful institutional actions, able to build more sustainable food systems of contemporary cities. These innovative policies are designed with a systemic and cross-sectoral approach, capable of acting at the intersection of different issues and fields such as water, waste, planning, health, transport, education, environment, trade, but also food and nutrition security, self-sufficiency and food sovereignty.We will describe an overview of initiatives developed in African cities, in view of the values stemming from the New Urban Agenda and the recommended actions by the recent Milan Urban Food Policy Pact, as an inspiring and propelling opportunity for new forms of territorial partnerships which could promote new types of cooperation amongst cities, universities, research bodies and civil society organizations from global North and South.Our research follows also the broader Italian development agenda. Under this light we will describe the mobilization of a number of institutional actors towards enhancing collaboration with the African context, drawing a geography of priorities, places and initiatives that are being activated in this field.The paper will identify a series of cross-cutting issues (such as land tenure, climate change, urban agriculture, rural-urban migration, waste management) to create a set of interpretative geographies, comparing cases across different African perspectives (for instance, environmental and socio-cultural) to identify common grounds and regional features

    Characterization of resting state activity in MCI individuals

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    Objectives. Aging is the major risk factor for Alzheimer Disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The aim of this study was to identify novel modifications of brain functional connectivity in MCI patients. MCI individuals were compared to healthy elderly subjects. Methods. We enrolled 37 subjects (age range 60–80 y.o.). Of these, 13 subjects were affected by MCI and 24 were age-matched healthy elderly control (HC). Subjects were evaluated with Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), and prose memory (Babcock story) tests. In addition, with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), we investigated resting state network (RSN) activities. Resting state (Rs) fMRI data were analyzed by means of Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Subjects were followed-up with neuropsychological evaluations for three years. Results. Rs-fMRI of MCI subjects showed increased intrinsic connectivity in the Default Mode Network (DMN) and in the Somatomotor Network (SMN). Analysis of the DMN showed statistically significant increased activation in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and left inferior parietal lobule (lIPL). During the three years follow-up, 4 MCI subjects converted to AD. The subset of MCI AD-converted patients showed increased connectivity in the right Inferior Parietal Lobule (rIPL). As for SMN activity, MCI and MCI-AD converted groups showed increased level of connectivity in correspondence of the right Supramarginal Gyrus (rSG). Conclusions. Our findings indicate alterations of DMN and SMN activity in MCI subjects, thereby providing potential imaging-based markers that can be helpful for the early diagnosis and monitoring of these patients

    Evolution of Bariatric Surgery in Italy in the Last 11 Years: Data from the SICOB Yearly National Survey

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    Background: Bariatric surgery (BS) is a relatively novel surgical field and is in continuous expansion and evolution. Purpose: Aim of this study was to report changes in Italian surgical practice in the last decade. Methods: The Società Italiana di Chirurgia dell'Obesità (SICOB) conducted annual surveys to cense activity of SICOB centers between 2011 and 2021. Primary outcome was to detect differences in frequency of performance of adjustable gastric banding (AGB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), one anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB), bilio-pancreatic diversion (BPD), and gastric plication (GP). Secondary outcome was to detect differences in performance of main non-malabsorptive procedures (AGB + SG) and overall bypass procedures (RYGB + OAGB). Geographical differences were also investigated. Results: Median response rate was 92%. AGB declined from 36% of procedures in 2011 to 5% in 2021 (p < 0.0001). SG increased from 30% in 2011 to 55% in 2021 (p < 0.0001). RYGB declined from 25 to 12% of procedures (p < 0.0001). OAGB rose from 0% of procedures in 2011 to 15% in 2021 (p < 0.0001). BPD underwent decrease from 6.2 to 0.2% in 2011 and 2021, respectively (p < 0.0001). Main non-malabsorptive procedures significantly decreased while overall bypass procedures remained stable. There were significant differences among regions in performance of SG, RYGB, and OAGB. Conclusions: BS in Italy evolved significantly during the past 10 years. AGB underwent a decline, as did BPD and GP which are disappearing and RYGB which is giving way to OAGB. The latter is rising and is the second most-performed procedure after SG which has been confirmed as the preferred procedure by Italian bariatric surgeons

    Impact of antimicrobial stewardship interventions on appropriateness of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis. How to improve

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    Background and Objectives: Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) are the most common healthcare-associated infections and represent a major clinical problem in terms of mortality, morbidity, length of stay and overall costs. The appropriateness of Surgical Antibiotic Prophylaxis (SAP) is a key component to reduce the SSIs while the inappropriateness is a major cause of some emerging infections and selection of antibiotic resistance, therefore increasing healthcare costs. For this reasons international and national guidelines have been developed to guide clinicians in the optimal use of SAP. The The overall compliance to these guidelines is poor, with a high heterogeneity and as a consequence there is no universally recognized intervention to improve the appropriateness of SAP. The antimicrobial stewardship program is a systematic approach to improve appropriateness of antimicrobial use, to optimize the treatment of infections and to minimize the adverse effects associated with antibiotic use, like antimicrobial resistance, toxicity and costs. We describe a successfully Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) intervention on SAP appropriateness. Material and Methods: The prospective study was conducted at “Santa Maria” tertiary hospital in Terni, Umbria, in 12 main surgical units and was organized in three subsequent phases . The hospital defined evidence-based guidelines for optimal use of SAP, approved a new workflow to optimize the process of ordering, dispensing, administering and documenting SAP and created a satellite pharmacy in the operative block . Phase 1: we analysed 2059 elective surgical cases from January to June 2018 for 3 SAP parameters of appropriateness: indication, choice, dose. Phase 2: in July 2018 an audit was performed to analyse the result ; we reviewed 1781 elective surgical procedures from July to December 2018 looking for the same 3 SAP parameters of appropriateness. Results: The comparative analysis between phase 1 and 2 has demonstrated that the correct indication has a significant improvement (p-value 0.00128), moving from 73.63% in phase 1 to 77.82% in phase 2. The choice of antibiotic has not shown any significant improvement (p-value 0.4863) . The correct dose significantly improved (p-value&lt; 2.2 1016 ), rising from 71.75% in phase 1 to 86.19% in phase 2. The overall compliance had a significant improvement (p-value &lt;5.6 1012) passing from 40.21% in tphase 1 to 51.15% in phase 2. Conclusions: Our prospective study demonstrated a model of succesfully antimicrobial stewardship intervention that improves appropriateness of SAP

    Kajian Perbedaan Konsentrasi Larutan Garam Pada Perendaman Rgh Dan Vaksin Terhadap Kelulushidupan Dan Pertumbuhan Benih Ikan Lele Sangkuriang (Clarias Gariepinus)

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    Berdasarkan data KKP (2013), pencapaian produksi ikan lele pada tahun 2013 mampu melampaui target. Ikan lele merupakan ikan yang mudah dibudidayakan, sehingga banyak dilakukan penelitian agar didapatkan benih lele dengan pertumbuhan dan kelulushidupan yang lebih baik, serta tahan terhadap serangan penyakit. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh konsentrasi larutan garam yang berbeda dan konsentrasi yang terbaik pada perendaman rGH dan vaksin terhadap kelulushidupan dan pertumbuhan benih lele sangkuriang. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada tanggal 13 November 2014 – 15 Februari 2015 di Satuan Kerja Pembenihan dan Budidaya Ikan Air Tawar (SATKER PBIAT), Siwarak, Ungaran, Semarang. Ikan uji yang digunakan adalah benih lele sangkuriang umur 12 hari. Metode yang digunakan adalah eksperimental dengan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL) 4 perlakuan dan 3 ulangan, yaitu: (A) perlakuan tanpa larutan garam, (B) konsentrasi 0,5%, (C) konsentrasi 1,0% dan (D) konsentrasi 1,5%. Pemeliharaan ikan dilakukan selama 42 hari. Variabel data yang diamati meliputi kelulushidupan, SGR, panjang mutlak, FCR, EPP dan kelulushidupan setelah uji tantang. Analisa data dengan menggunakan anova untuk mengetahui pengaruh perlakuan yang berbeda nyata, apabila hasil yang didapatkan berbeda nyata, maka dilanjutkan dengan uji duncan untuk mengetahui perlakuan yang terbaik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perlakuan terbaik adalah perlakuan C, dengan nilai kelulushidupan (87,00±1,00%), SGR (7,79±0,03%), nilai panjang mutlak (6,75±0,15cm), nilai FCR (0,71±0,01) dan nilai EPP (140,28±1,25%), sedangkan untuk kelulushidupan setelah uji tantang didapatkan hasil yang tidak berbeda nyata, dimana: A (93,33±5,77%), B (96,67±5,77%), C (96,67±5,77%) dan D (96,67±5,77%). Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini ialah pemberian konsentrasi larutan garam yang berbeda berpengaruh sangat nyata terhadap kelulushidupan, SGR, panjang mutlak, FCR dan EPP, namun tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap kelulushidupan setelah uji tantang. Konsentrasi larutan garam terbaik pada penelitian ini adalah 1,0%. Based on data from KKP (2013), the achievement of the production of catfish in 2013 was able of exceeding the target. Catfish is a fish that easily cultivated, so a lot of research done to get catfish\u27s seed with better survival and growth, and it can resistant to attack of deseases. This research was aimed to find out the effect of different salt solution concentrations and the best concentration from immersion of rGH and vaccine for survival rate and growth of sangkuriang catfish\u27s seed. This research was conducted on November 13th, 2014 – February 15th, 2015 at Satuan Kerja Pembenihan dan Budidaya Ikan Air Tawar (SATKER PBIAT), Siwarak, Ungaran, Semarang. The fish that used for this research is sangkuriang catfish\u27s seed aged 12 days. Completely randomized design (CRD) was used in this research with four treatments and three replication, which treatments are: (A) without salt solution concentration, (B) Using concentration 0.5%, (C) Concentration 1.0% and (D) Concentration 1.5%. The Fishes are maintained for 42 days. Observational variable are survival rate, SGR, absolute length, FCR, EPP and survival rate after challenge test. Data analysis using anova to know the effect of treatment is significantly different, if the result is significantly different, then continue with duncan test to know the best treatment. The best result is treatment C, with survival rate (87.00±1.00%), SGR (7.79±0.03%), absolute length (6.75±0.15cm), FCR (0.71±0.01), EPP (140.28±1.25%), and for survival rate after challenge test are not significantly different, where: treatment A (93.33±5.77%), B (96.67±5.77%), C (96.67±5.77%) and D (96.67±5.77%). The conclusion of this research is giving of salt solution with different concentration take significantly effect for survival rate, SGR, absolute length, FCR and EPP, but did not take significantly effect for survival rate after challenge test. The best salt solution concentration is 1.0%
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