506 research outputs found

    Distance Sensing with Dynamic Speckles

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    Chemistry in Protoplanetary Disks

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    This comprehensive review summarizes our current understanding of the evolution of gas, solids and molecular ices in protoplanetary disks. Key findings related to disk physics and chemistry, both observationally and theoretically, are highlighted. We discuss which molecular probes are used to derive gas temperature, density, ionization state, kinematics, deuterium fractionation, and study organic matter in protoplanetary disks.Comment: 83 pages, 8 figures, 5 tables, to be published in a Thematic Issue "Astrochemistry" in Chem. Reviews (December 2013). This document is the unedited Author's version of a Submitted Work that was subsequently accepted for publication in Chemical Reviews, copyright (c) American Chemical Society after peer revie

    Gas mass tracers in protoplanetary disks: CO is still the best

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    Protoplanetary disk mass is a key parameter controlling the process of planetary system formation. CO molecular emission is often used as a tracer of gas mass in the disk. In this study we consider the ability of CO to trace the gas mass over a wide range of disk structural parameters and search for chemical species that could possibly be used as alternative mass tracers to CO. Specifically, we apply detailed astrochemical modeling to a large set of models of protoplanetary disks around low-mass stars, to select molecules with abundances correlated with the disk mass and being relatively insensitive to other disk properties. We do not consider sophisticated dust evolution models, restricting ourselves with the standard astrochemical assumption of 0.1¬†őľ0.1~\mu m dust. We find that CO is indeed the best molecular tracer for total gas mass, despite the fact that it is not the main carbon carrier, provided reasonable assumptions about CO abundance in the disk are used. Typically, chemical reprocessing lowers the abundance of CO by a factor of 3, compared to the case of photo-dissociation and freeze-out as the only ways of CO depletion. On average only 13% C-atoms reside in gas-phase CO, albeit with variations from 2 to 30%. CO2_2, H2_2O and H2_2CO can potentially serve as alternative mass tracers, the latter two being only applicable if disk structural parameters are known.Comment: Accepted for publication in Ap

    Deuterium Fractionation: the Ariadne's Thread from the Pre-collapse Phase to Meteorites and Comets today

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    The Solar System formed about 4.6 billion years ago from a condensation of matter inside a molecular cloud. Trying to reconstruct what happened is the goal of this chapter. For that, we put together our understanding of Galactic objects that will eventually form new suns and planetary systems, with our knowledge on comets, meteorites and small bodies of the Solar System today. Our specific tool is the molecular deuteration, namely the amount of deuterium with respect to hydrogen in molecules. This is the Ariadne's thread that helps us to find the way out from a labyrinth of possible histories of our Solar System. The chapter reviews the observations and theories of the deuterium fractionation in pre-stellar cores, protostars, protoplanetary disks, comets, interplanetary dust particles and meteorites and links them together trying to build up a coherent picture of the history of the Solar System formation. We emphasise the interdisciplinary nature of the chapter, which gathers together researchers from different communities with the common goal of understanding the Solar System history.Comment: Accepted for publication as a chapter in Protostars and Planets VI, University of Arizona Press (2014), eds. H. Beuther, R. Klessen, C. Dullemond, Th. Hennin
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