6,698 research outputs found

    Assessment of fruit and vegetable residues suitable for renewable energy production: GIS-based model for developing new frontiers within the context of circular economy

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    Due to the necessity of developing renewable energy sources, the anaerobic digestion for producing biomethane has developed significantly in the last years, since it allows to both reduce disposal treatment and produce green energy. In this field, fruit and vegetable wastes have been recently put forward, since they could represent a suitable resource for producing biomethane as a new frontier within the context of a circular economy. This study aims at filling the gap in the knowledge of the production, quantities and biogas potential production of these residues. On this basis, a GIS-based model was developed and applied to the Sicily region by investigating the specific regulatory framework as well as by analysing descriptive statistics. The results of the GIS analyses enabled the localisation of the highest productive territorial areas and highlighted where fruit and vegetable wastes are abundantly located. In this regard, about 7 million Nm3 of biogas could be produced by reusing only the fruit and vegetable residues coming from the three most representative Sicilian wholesale markets among those considered. Finally, the regulatory framework is of crucial importance in inhibiting or supporting the use of the selected biomass in a specific sector, with regard to the case study considered

    FORCE- AND POWER-TIME RELATIONSHIP,EMG RESPONSES IN CONCENTRIG AND ISOMETRIC CONDITIONS,EFFECTS OF TRAINING AND INDIVIDUAL CRARACTERISTICS

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    Introduction The relationship between EHG (temporal pattern, IEMG, power spectra ) and the biomechanical parameter in isometric and dynamic muscle tension represents an essential method in the analysis of the specificity of training effects and of the individual characteristics in motor control modelling and in practical motor learning. METHODS Force-time, power-time relationships under concentric and isometric conditions (MVC) with and without preloading were determined. For EHG purpose, surface electrodes (O= 5 mm; interelectrode distance 40 mm) were placed over the belly of each muscle (Tric.br.;Bic.br.; Delt.an.; Pect.ma.). Bipolar myoelectrical potentials were recorded with the passive electrode placed between the two actives: signals were preamplified and band-pass filtered (CMRRT 70 db, BP= 10 Hz- 1 KHz: Zin=1,5 MR. gain= 1000). EMG signals and the force were digitized on-line with a sampling frequency of 1000 Hz. For time structure analysis EMG signals were full-wave rectified and bandpass filtered (20-70 Hz) to obtain envelop curve patterns of each muscle. Power spectra analysis (median frequency MF) were performed using 1024 and pl2 data points. 3 groups (n=4) of sport students were involved in the investigation. Subjects performed a 8 week training period under different loading conditions. RESULTS # In the concentric tasks subjects show individual strategies in the muscular coordination patterns dependent on the load intensity. # Differences in the muscular interactivity pattern are not necessarily matching similar variation in the mechanical output. # For increasing loads there is a linear relationship between muscular activation level and mechanical power output. # In the power spectra, trends are consistent but also discontinuous. Median frequency could possibly indicate that some subjects have resources in motor units recruitment . # Other considerations are discussed referring to the muscular activation and the isometric MVC under preloading conditions

    Enhancement of sustainable bioenergy production by valorising tomato residues: A GIS-based model

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    In order to increase the utilization of renewable energy sources, the biomethane production through anaerobic digestion has notably developed over the last years. Although, it is worldwide recognized, that valorising waste resources (i.e., by-products) is an opportunity to improve the efficiency rate of the agro-industrial chains, by reducing economic and environmental impact, it is necessary to support the strategic planning development of a future sustainable biomethane chain in line to circular economy. In this study, by adopting network information technologies, the importance of a strategic planning for sustainable developing biomethane sector was highlighted, since feedstocks logistic and supply phase is a key-aspect of any bioenergy project. The developed Geographic Information Systems (GIS) – methodology, that could be applied in any territorial area considering any type of biomass, allowed to define suitable locations for allocating new anaerobic digestion plants with the aim of developing a sustainable valorisation of tomato residues, by minimising the economic and environmental impacts. The achieved results provided advanced knowledge for the literature on the topic, helping to develop an operational GIS-tool for defining sustainable strategies for planning new plants, and proved that the development of integrated approach to define sustainable strategies for resource management along the whole supply chain is crucial

    GnRH agonist versus GnRH antagonist in in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF/ET)

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    Several protocols are actually available for in Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer. The review summarizes the main differences and the clinic characteristics of the protocols in use with GnRH agonists and GnRH antagonists by emphasizing the major outcomes and hormonal changes associated with each protocol. The majority of randomized clinical trials clearly shows that in "in Vitro" Fertilization and Embryo Transfer, the combination of exogenous Gonadotropin plus a Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) agonist, which is able to suppress pituitary FSH and LH secretion, is associated with increased pregnancy rate as compared with the use of gonadotropins without a GnRH agonist. Protocols with GnRH antagonists are effective in preventing a premature rise of LH and induce a shorter and more cost-effective ovarian stimulation compared to the long agonist protocol. However, a different synchronization of follicular recruitment and growth occurs with GnRH agonists than with GnRH antagonists. Future developments have to be focused on timing of the administration of GnRH antagonists, by giving a great attention to new strategies of stimulation in patients in which radio-chemotherapy cycles are needed

    Short-term vertical velocity field in the Appennines (Italy) revealed by geodetic levelling data

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    We estimate current vertical movements along the Apennines (Italy) through repeatedly measured high precision levelling routes. In order to highlight regional crustal deformation the analysis of a geodetic database, with a minimum benchmark density of 0.7 bm/km (1943–2003 time period), is carried out. We evaluate systematic and random error and their propagation along the levelling routes. Tests on original raw height data have been carried out to define error propagation. The computed relative vertical rates stand significantly above error propagation. A series of traverses along and across the Apennines and a map of relative vertical velocities reveal a geodetic signal characterised by values up to 2.5–3.0 mm/a and by wavelengths up to 100 km. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

    Butterflies as bioindicators of metal contamination

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    Anthropogenic trace metal contamination has significantly increased and has caused many hazardous consequences for the ecosystems and human health. The Terni basin valley (Central Italy) shows a heavy load of pollutants from industrial activities, while the characteristic orography structure of the valley favours air stagnation, thus limiting air pollution dispersal. The present study conducted in 2014 aimed to determine the concentration of ten metals in five species of butterflies at nine sites in the Terni valley along a 21-km-long transect, including both relatively pristine and industrial areas. At sites where soil contamination was high for a given metal, such as for chromium as in the case of site 4 (the closest to the steel plant) and for lead as in the case of site 2 (contaminated by a firing range), higher levels of contamination were observed in the tissues of butterflies. We found a correlation between soil contamination and the concentration of Cr, Al and Sr in the tissues of some species of butterflies. The sensitivity to contamination differed among the five species; in particular, Coenonympha pamphilus was generally the species that revealed the highest concentrations of all the ten trace metals at the sites closer to the industrial area. It is known that C. pamphilus is a sedentary species and that its host plants are the Poaceae, capable of accumulating high quantities of metals in their rhizosphere region, thus providing the link with soil contamination. Therefore, monitoring the metal concentration levels in butterflies might be a good indicator and a control tool of environmental quality, specifically in areas affected by high anthropogenic pollution loads linked to a specific source

    La Rete Integrata Nazionale GPS (RING): stato dell'arte a due anni dalla nascita

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    Le reti permanenti GPS costituiscono una importante risorsa per una serie di studi tecnologici e scientifici. La carenza di conoscenze in studi di tettonica attiva, che comprendono anche la parte di sismologia come l'accumulo di deformazione sulle faglie, è stata a lungo frenata dalla mancanza di reti permanenti GPS sufficientemente dense distribuite su tutto il territorio nazionale. In particolare, la definizione di una placca Adriatica e la sua terminazione meridionale sono ancora materia di dibattito (Oldow et al., 2002; Battaglia et al. 2004). Inoltre, di recente, alcuni importanti lavori (Hollenstein, et al. 2004; D'Agostino and Selvaggi; Serpelloni et al. 2005) hanno mostrato che valori di deformazione molto più alti di quanto si pensava prima sono stati effettivamente riscontrati nella nostra regione e che solo l'uso di una rete densa di stazioni, quindi di un campionamento ad alta densità nelle aree dove sono maggiori le velocità relative, permette di osservare in modo corretto il rilascio, o accumulo, di deformazione. Infine, il contributo della geodesia alla sismologia sta diventando sempre più importante sia nella definizione del rilascio cosismico durante un terremoto e sia nell'osservazione e modellazione dell'accumulo intersismico di deformazione elastica su faglie attive. Da qualche anno, l'Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) ha impiegato notevoli risorse e sforzi per rispondere a tali temi scientifici. Selvaggi et al. (2006) hanno gettato le basi e mostrato i primi sviluppi di una rete GPS permanente, la Rete Integrata Nazionale GPS (RING), creata con l'obiettivo di dare un forte contributo scientifico ai temi sopra citati La rete RING (Fig. 1a), nella sua completezza, rappresenta ad oggi non solo un punto di riferimento per studi di carattere scientifico ma anche una robusta infrastruttura tecnologica e informatica per l'archiviazione dei dati GPS per diverse altre reti locali e regionali (Regione Puglia, Regione Friuli, Leica Geosystems). Tali reti, contribuiscono quotidianamente all'acquisizione, all'interno di un server, di dati per un totale di oltre 300 stazioni distribuite sul territorio nazionale (Fig. 1b). Se, poi, si considera anche l'aspetto del processamento dei dati GPS, l'utilizzo di dati GPS appartenenti ad altre reti (locali, regionali o anche esterne al territorio italiano) fa sì che ogni analista utilizzi i dati, in media, di circa 650 stazioni GPS permanenti al giorno.PublishedL'Aquila - Italia1.9. TTC - Rete GPS nazionalereserve
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