8 research outputs found

    Masculine vs Feminine Personality Traits and Women’s Employment Outcomes in Britain: A Field Experiment

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    In the current study, we utilized a correspondent test to capture the way in which firms respond to women who exhibit masculine and feminine personality traits. In doing so, we minimized the potential for reverse causality bias and unobserved heterogeneities to occur. Women who exhibit masculine personality traits have a 4.3 percentage points greater likelihood of gaining access to occupations than those displaying feminine personality traits. In both male- and female-dominated occupations, women with masculine personality traits have an occupational access advantage, as compared to those exhibiting feminine personality traits. Moreover, women with masculine personality traits take up positions which offer 10 percentage points higher wages, in comparison with those displaying feminine personality traits. Furthermore, wage premiums are higher for those exhibiting masculine personality traits in male-dominated occupations, than for female-dominated positions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first field experiment to examine the effect of masculine and feminine personality traits on entry-level pay scales. As feminine personality traits are stereotypically attributed to women, and these characteristics appear to yield fewer rewards within the market, they may offer one of many plausible explanations as to why women experience higher unemployment rates, whilst also receiving lower earnings, as compared to men

    Technoregulierung in China: bayerische Unternehmen im Sozialkreditsystem

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    Seit Einführung des chinesischen Sozialkreditsystems (SKS) in den Jahren 2014–2020 stehen Bedenken darüber im Raum, welche Auswirkungen dieses System auf Unternehmen und Einzelpersonen hat, die in China Handel treiben. In der vorliegenden Studie untersuchen wir den Einfluss des chinesischen Sozialkreditsystems (SKS) auf bayerische Unternehmen. Wir ermitteln, wie große, mittlere, kleine und kleinste, in China aktive bayerische Unternehmen im SKS klassifiziert und bewertet werden. Das öffentlich zugängliche System zielt darauf ab, bestimmte Geschäftsaktivitäten entweder als erwünscht einzustufen und zu belohnen (durch rote Listen) oder als unerwünscht und diese zu bestrafen (durch Verwaltungsstrafen und schwarze Listen). Unsere Analyse von 170 bayerischen Unternehmen in China zeigt, dass diese Unternehmen größtenteils auf roten (positiven) Listen erfasst sind. Fast neun Prozent der Unternehmen haben jedoch einen negativen Systemeintrag in Form einer Verwaltungsstrafe, der unter Umständen zu einem Eintrag auf einer schwarzen Liste führen kann. Die positiven Einträge beziehen sich hauptsächlich auf Steuerangelegenheiten, während die Missachtung von Vorschriften in den Bereichen Arbeitssicherheit, Gesundheit und Umwelt den Großteil der Negativeinträge ausmacht. Auf regionaler Ebene existieren jedoch erhebliche Unterschiede bei der Umsetzung des SKS durch die einzelnen lokalen Behörden. Wir ergänzen unsere Analyse mit Erkenntnissen aus 10 Tiefeninterviews, die Einblicke in die Erfahrungen und Perspektiven in China ansässiger bayerischer Unternehmen im Kontext des SKS gewähren. Unsere Gesamtauswertung fließt in Handlungsempfehlungen ein, die sich auf potenzielle Unterstützungsmaßnahmen für bayerische Unternehmen mit chinesischen Tochtergesellschaften konzentrieren

    How localised are knowledge spillovers? Evidence from microgeographic data on UK patent citations

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    We model the spatial characteristics of technological knowledge flows in the UK. Using a novel and highly accurate dataset of inventor locations, we test for localisation of knowledge spillovers in citations between UK patent applications from 1982 to 2015. We apply continuous distance localisation tests separately to patent citations in 313 technologies and find that spillovers are localised in far fewer technologies and at shorter distances than previous studies have suggested. Only 30% of technologies in the UK display localisation, knowledge spillovers decay rapidly at distances between 30 and 80 km, and spillovers within technologies are twice as frequently localised as spillovers between technologies. Our results suggest that technological and geographical proximity are important determinants of knowledge spillovers in the UK and that close physical proximity is particularly relevant for industrial sectors that are more reliant on tacit knowledge

    Factors Affecting Researchers' Collaborative Patterns: A Case Study from Maghreb Universities

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    This article examines the factors affecting researchers’ collaborative behaviour, based on the results of a survey of 285 researchers from three universities in Maghreb (Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia). For each country, results indicate that the majority of researchers prefer to collaborate (in order of preference) with their peers in their own research group, with foreign partners, and with national collaborators from other universities. European partners are preferred in terms of foreign collaboration, followed by researchers from other Maghreb countries. While researchers from the United States of America (USA) and the other Arab countries do not appear to be the preferred partners for Algerian researchers, those from Morocco and Tunisia favour collaboration with their peers from these countries. Results also show that scientific collaboration is mainly developed through personal contacts, and that cooperation agreements between institutions do not seem to stimulate researchers to intensify their scientific collaboration. Finally, over two-thirds of the respondents considered tools such as Skype and social media to be key factors for building and enhancing collaboration, and experienced researchers use these tools more extensively. This article highlights the need for an increased coherence between researchers’ expectations and their universities’ scientific collaboration policies

    Proceedings of the 23rd Paediatric Rheumatology European Society Congress: part three

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    Proceedings of the 23rd Paediatric Rheumatology European Society Congress: part three

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