173 research outputs found

    Replacement and late formation of atmospheric N2 on undifferentiated Titan by impacts

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    Saturn’s moon, Titan, has remarkable surface features—a massive N2 atmosphere and hydrological cycle of CH4—that are often compared with that of Earth^1^. However, the origin and evolution of Titan’s atmosphere remains largely unknown. The proposed formation mechanisms for Titan’s N2 require a prolonged, warm proto-atmosphere during accretion^2-4^. These mechanisms accordingly would not have worked efficiently if Titan stayed cold, as indicated by the incompletely differentiated interior observed by Cassini^5^. Because formation of a massive secondary atmosphere on a planetary body would associate with a major differentiation of its sold body during accretion^6–8^, the presence of such an atmosphere on undifferentiated cold Titan poses a serious dilemma on our view of how planetary bodies develop atmospheres. Here we propose a new mechanism for the post-accretion formation of Titan’s N2 to resolve this problem: conversion and replenishment of N2 from NH3 contained in Titan by impacts during the late heavy bombardment (LHB)^9^. Our results show that Titan, regardless of its thermal history, would acquire sufficient N2 to account for the current atmosphere during the LHB and that most of the pre-LHB atmosphere would have replaced by impact-induced N2. This is the first scenario capable of generating a N2-rich and nearly primordial Ar-free atmosphere on undifferentiated cold Titan. We also suggest that Titan’s N2 was delivered from a different source in the solar nebula compared with Earth and that the origins of N2 on Titan and Triton are fundamentally different with that of N2 on Pluto

    Ground-based Characterization of Hayabusa2 Mission Target Asteroid 162173 Ryugu: Constraining Mineralogical Composition in Preparation for Spacecraft Operations

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    Asteroids that are targets of spacecraft missions are interesting because they present us with an opportunity to validate ground-based spectral observations. One such object is near-Earth asteroid (NEA) (162173) Ryugu, which is the target of the Japanese Space Agency's (JAXA) Hayabusa2 sample return mission. We observed Ryugu using the 3-m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, on July 13, 2016 to constrain the object's surface composition, meteorite analogs, and link to other asteroids in the main belt and NEA populations. We also modeled its photometric properties using archival data. Using the Lommel-Seeliger model we computed the predicted flux for Ryugu at a wide range of viewing geometries as well as albedo quantities such as geometric albedo, phase integral, and spherical Bond albedo. Our computed albedo quantities are consistent with results from Ishiguro et al. (2014). Our spectral analysis has found a near-perfect match between our spectrum of Ryugu and those of NEA (85275) 1994 LY and Mars-crossing asteroid (316720) 1998 BE7, suggesting that their surface regoliths have similar composition. We compared Ryugu's spectrum with that of main belt asteroid (302) Clarissa, the largest asteroid in the Clarissa asteroid family, suggested as a possible source of Ryugu by Campins et al. (2013). We found that the spectrum of Clarissa shows significant differences with our spectrum of Ryugu, but it is similar to the spectrum obtained by Moskovitz et al. (2013). The best possible meteorite analogs for our spectrum of Ryugu are two CM2 carbonaceous chondrites, Mighei and ALH83100.Comment: 23 pages, 7 figures, 4 tables, accepted in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Main Journa

    The Association between Utilization of Media Information and Current Health Anxiety Among the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster Evacuees

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    The 2011 nuclear disaster in Fukushima was not only a health disaster, but also an information disaster. Although media can promote health communication following disasters, studies have revealed associations between media information and negative psychological reactions. To clarify the relationship between media utilization and current health anxiety due to radiation exposure, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in Fukushima. We selected 2000 subjects from evacuation (i.e., 500) and non-evacuation (i.e., 1500) areas by two-stage stratified random sampling. As the independent variable, participants were asked about current health anxiety due to radiation exposure at the time of answering the questionnaire. For utilization of media about radiation exposure, local media, national media, Internet media, public broadcasts, and public relations information from local government were set as the dependent variables. Questionnaire data were analyzed by evacuation type (i.e., forced/voluntary). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the use of public relations information was significantly associated with lower anxiety for the forced evacuees (odds ratio: 0.72; 95% confidence interval: 0.56–0.93). Our findings highlight the importance of public relations information from local government in terms of it being associated with lower current health anxiety, and this could potentially aid in preparing for future disasters

    Spectrophotometric analysis of the Ryugu rock seen by MASCOT: Searching for a carbonaceous chondrite analog

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    We analyze images of a rock on Ryugu acquired in situ by MASCam, camera of the MASCOT lander, with the aim of identifying possible carbonaceous chondrite (CC) analogs. The rock's reflectance (rF=0.034±0.003r_{\rm F} = 0.034 \pm 0.003 at phase angle 4.5∘±0.1∘4.5^\circ \pm 0.1^\circ) is consistent with Ryugu's average reflectance, suggesting that the rock is typical for this asteroid. A spectrophotometric analysis of the rock's inclusions provides clues to CC group membership. Inclusions are generally brighter than the matrix. The dominant variation in their color is a change of the visible spectral slope, with many inclusions being either red or blue. Spectral variation in the red channel hints at the presence of the 0.7~μ\mum absorption band linked to hydrated phyllosilicates. The inclusions are unusually large for a CC; we find that their size distribution may best match that of the Renazzo (CR2) and Leoville (CV3) meteorites. The Ryugu rock does not easily fit into any of the CC groups, consistent with the idea that typical Ryugu-type meteorites are too fragile to survive atmospheric entry

    The ESA Hera Mission: Investigating binary asteroid (65803) Didymos and the DART crater

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    On 26 September 2022 NASA's Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft will impact Dimorphos, the satellite of asteroid (65803) Didymos. The impact will change Dimorphos' orbital period around Didymos. As Didymos is an eclipsing binary, and on a close flyby of Earth on this date, the period change can be detected by Earth-based observers. Before impact, DART will deploy the Light Italian Cubesat for Imaging of Asteroid (LICIACube) that will provide images of the first instants after impact. ESA’s Hera spacecraft will rendezvous with Didymos four years after the impact. It will perform the measurements necessary to fully understand the effect of the DART impact on Dimorphos, in particular by measuring its mass, and investigating its internal structure, and thus determining the momentum transfer and detailed characterization of the crater left by DART

    Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy

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    The peripherally T-cell lymphoma; Mycosis fungoides etc, has the good radiation sensitivity, and has been adapted for total skin electron beam therapy. In this study the pendular irradiation method was used for the purpose of total skin electron beam therapy in Mycosis fungoides, and physical data on the radiation field and the electron beam energy were useful clinically.皮膚に限局した一連の末梢型T細胞リンパ腫は放射線に対する感受性が高く、電子線治療の適応となる疾患である。こららの疾患は一般的に全身の皮膚に浸潤するため、治療に際してはTarget Volumeの深さに合わせた最小限のエネルギーで全身隈なく照射する必要がある。筆者等は最近臨床で遭遇した菌状息肉症の患者を治療するため、その患者に合った物理的なデータを測定した。照射野の拡大には振子照射法を用い、エネルギー低減方法は装置に装備されている鉛のスキャタラーを低原子番号で、しかも加工のしやすい塩化Vinyl板に交換する方法を工夫した。データとして治療効果、副作用に関係する線量率、エネルギー、及び照射野内平坦度について測定した結果、距離が長くなる関係から線量率が低下する全身照射法の欠点は解消できなかったが、エネルギー及び平坦度については使用可能なデータを得ることができた

    Statistics and analysis on the troubles of linear accelarator.

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    放射線治療の成否は厳密に設定されたTarget Volumeに如何に正確な線量を照射するかによって決まる。治療術式の過程において、最も大きな誤差を生む要因は照射機器である。誤差の少ない治療を目指す第一歩は機器を正確に作動させることであり、日常からの保守点検および整備が必要である。今回、岡山大学附属病院で1976年から1991年までに使用されたリニアックについて、その故障状況を集計し、部位別故障件数、管球の寿命、稼動率などを分析検討した。その結果、故障件数では設置され稼動を始めた1976年、装置の老朽化が進んだ1990、1991年に多かった。部位別集計では加速部に圧倒的に多く、次いで照射口、高圧部の順であった。稼動率は設置年および1987年を除いてはいずれも96%以上とよい結果であった。この結果は全国に稼動している同型の装置の保守点検に役立つものと考える。The Accuracy of radiation dose exposed the rigidly selected target volume is one of significant factors that have an influence upon the efficiency of treatment in the radiotherapy techniques. Therefore, it is necessary to daily maintain and check irradiation equipment for the radiotherapy. For the radiotherapy, the electron linear accelerator, Toshiba LMR-15A, had worked from 1976 to 1991 in Okayama University Hospital. On this study, all records regarding the operating condition were analyzed concerning parts of trouble, life of a tube and operating efficiency for these sixteen years. In a high frequency of trouble, an accelerating structure ranked first, followed by a collimator and a high voltage generator. The operating efficiency was 95% or greater. This report should be helpful to maintain and check a same model in other hosptals
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