839 research outputs found

    Stochastic Downsampling for Cost-Adjustable Inference and Improved Regularization in Convolutional Networks

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    It is desirable to train convolutional networks (CNNs) to run more efficiently during inference. In many cases however, the computational budget that the system has for inference cannot be known beforehand during training, or the inference budget is dependent on the changing real-time resource availability. Thus, it is inadequate to train just inference-efficient CNNs, whose inference costs are not adjustable and cannot adapt to varied inference budgets. We propose a novel approach for cost-adjustable inference in CNNs - Stochastic Downsampling Point (SDPoint). During training, SDPoint applies feature map downsampling to a random point in the layer hierarchy, with a random downsampling ratio. The different stochastic downsampling configurations known as SDPoint instances (of the same model) have computational costs different from each other, while being trained to minimize the same prediction loss. Sharing network parameters across different instances provides significant regularization boost. During inference, one may handpick a SDPoint instance that best fits the inference budget. The effectiveness of SDPoint, as both a cost-adjustable inference approach and a regularizer, is validated through extensive experiments on image classification

    CRNN: a joint neural network for redundancy detection

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    This article proposes a novel framework for detecting redundancy in supervised sentence categorisation. Unlike traditional singleton neural network, our model incorporates character-aware convolutional neural network (Char-CNN) with character-aware recurrent neural network (Char-RNN) to form a convolutional recurrent neural network (CRNN). Our model benefits from Char-CNN in that only salient features are selected and fed into the integrated Char-RNN. Char-RNN effectively learns long sequence semantics via sophisticated update mechanism. We compare our framework against the state-of-the-art text classification algorithms on four popular benchmarking corpus. For instance, our model achieves competing precision rate, recall ratio, and F1 score on the Google-news data-set. For twenty-news-groups data stream, our algorithm obtains the optimum on precision rate, recall ratio, and F1 score. For Brown Corpus, our framework obtains the best F1 score and almost equivalent precision rate and recall ratio over the top competitor. For the question classification collection, CRNN produces the optimal recall rate and F1 score and comparable precision rate. We also analyse three different RNN hidden recurrent cells’ impact on performance and their runtime efficiency. We observe that MGU achieves the optimal runtime and comparable performance against GRU and LSTM. For TFIDF based algorithms, we experiment with word2vec, GloVe, and sent2vec embeddings and report their performance differences

    Logical Message Passing Networks with One-hop Inference on Atomic Formulas

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    Complex Query Answering (CQA) over Knowledge Graphs (KGs) has attracted a lot of attention to potentially support many applications. Given that KGs are usually incomplete, neural models are proposed to answer logical queries by parameterizing set operators with complex neural networks. However, such methods usually train neural set operators with a large number of entity and relation embeddings from zero, where whether and how the embeddings or the neural set operators contribute to the performance remains not clear. In this paper, we propose a simple framework for complex query answering that decomposes the KG embeddings from neural set operators. We propose to represent the complex queries in the query graph. On top of the query graph, we propose the Logical Message Passing Neural Network (LMPNN) that connects the \textit{local} one-hop inferences on atomic formulas to the \textit{global} logical reasoning for complex query answering. We leverage existing effective KG embeddings to conduct one-hop inferences on atomic formulas, the results of which are regarded as the messages passed in LMPNN. The reasoning process over the overall logical formulas is turned into the forward pass of LMPNN that incrementally aggregates local information to predict the answers' embeddings finally. The complex logical inference across different types of queries will then be learned from training examples based on the LMPNN architecture. Theoretically, our query-graph representation is more general than the prevailing operator-tree formulation, so our approach applies to a broader range of complex KG queries. Empirically, our approach yields a new state-of-the-art neural CQA model. Our research bridges the gap between complex KG query answering tasks and the long-standing achievements of knowledge graph representation learning.Comment: Accepted by ICLR 2023. 20 pages, 4 figures, and 9 table

    Meteoroid and debris special investigation group data acquisition procedures

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    The entire LDEF spacecraft was examined by M&D SIG for impact (i.e., craters greater than or = 0.5 mm and penetrations greater than or = 0.3 mm in diameter) and related features (e.g., debris, secondaries). During the various detailed surveys conducted at NASA Kennedy, approx. 5,000 impact related features were photodocumented, and their locations measured and recorded; an additional approx. 30,000 smaller features were counted. The equipment and techniques used by the M&D SIG permitted the determination and recording of the locations and diameters of the 5,000 imaged features. A variety of experimental and LDEF structural hardware was acquired by the M&D SIG and is presently being examined and curated at NASA Johnson