1,683 research outputs found

    Trauma-Informed Practices of Mental Health Providers Around the Globe

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    This study examined trauma-informed practices of mental health professionals from 25 different countries. The literature indicates that many practitioners feel unprepared and unequipped to therapeutically work with individuals who have experienced trauma-related psychological disorders (SAMHSA, 2014). This poster highlights the deficits in trauma-informed competency among practitioners from around the globe, offers recommendations to emphasize graduate and post-graduate trauma-informed training, and also offers suggestions for future trauma competencies

    Dynamic Changes in Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Structure in Ventricular Myocytes

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    The fidelity of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling in ventricular myocytes is remarkable, with each action potential evoking a [Ca2+]i transient. The prevalent model is that the consistency in EC coupling in ventricular myocytes is due to the formation of fixed, tight junctions between the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and the sarcolemma where Ca2+ release is activated. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the SR is a structurally inert organelle in ventricular myocytes. Our data suggest that rather than being static, the SR undergoes frequent dynamic structural changes. SR boutons expressing functional ryanodine receptors moved throughout the cell, approaching or moving away from the sarcolemma of ventricular myocytes. These changes in SR structure occurred in the absence of changes in [Ca2+]i during EC coupling. Microtubules and the molecular motors dynein and kinesin 1(Kif5b) were important regulators of SR motility. These findings support a model in which the SR is a motile organelle capable of molecular motor protein-driven structural changes

    Diminished conditioned responding to the nicotine stimulus by antidepressant drugs with differing specificity for the serotonin and norepinephrine transporter

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    People diagnosed with depression also tend to have a co-morbid nicotine addiction. Thus, there is interest in whether medications used to treat depression alter the effects of nicotine. This study assessed whether the antidepressant drugs citalopram, imipramine, and reboxetine, with differing specificity for the serotonin and norepinephrine transporter, altered responding controlled by the conditional stimulus (CS) effects of nicotine. Rats received intermixed 20-min nicotine (0.4 mg base/kg, SC) and saline sessions. On nicotine sessions, rats had intermittent access to sucrose; no sucrose was available on saline sessions. After discrimination performance stabilized and a nicotine generalization curve (0.025–0.4 mg/kg) was established, the antidepressant drugs were assessed. In these tests, rats were pretreated with citalopram (1–17 mg/kg), imipramine (1–17 mg/ kg), or reboxetine (1–30 mg/kg) before the training dose of nicotine and placement in a chamber for a 4-min extinction test. At the higher doses, all three antidepressant drugs blocked responding evoked by the nicotine CS and decreased nicotine-induced hyperactivity. When these higher doses of citalopram, imipramine, and reboxetine were tested alone (no nicotine), they decreased chamber activity and/or dipper entries. Nevertheless, all three drugs produced partial or complete blockade of the CS effects of nicotine at doses that produced no effect on dipper entries or chamber entries. This finding suggests that both neurotransmitters play a role in the CS effects of nicotine and that modifications in these systems by antidepressants may be clinically relevant

    Diminished conditioned responding to the nicotine stimulus by antidepressant drugs with differing specificity for the serotonin and norepinephrine transporter

    Get PDF
    People diagnosed with depression also tend to have a co-morbid nicotine addiction. Thus, there is interest in whether medications used to treat depression alter the effects of nicotine. This study assessed whether the antidepressant drugs citalopram, imipramine, and reboxetine, with differing specificity for the serotonin and norepinephrine transporter, altered responding controlled by the conditional stimulus (CS) effects of nicotine. Rats received intermixed 20-min nicotine (0.4 mg base/kg, SC) and saline sessions. On nicotine sessions, rats had intermittent access to sucrose; no sucrose was available on saline sessions. After discrimination performance stabilized and a nicotine generalization curve (0.025–0.4 mg/kg) was established, the antidepressant drugs were assessed. In these tests, rats were pretreated with citalopram (1–17 mg/kg), imipramine (1–17 mg/ kg), or reboxetine (1–30 mg/kg) before the training dose of nicotine and placement in a chamber for a 4-min extinction test. At the higher doses, all three antidepressant drugs blocked responding evoked by the nicotine CS and decreased nicotine-induced hyperactivity. When these higher doses of citalopram, imipramine, and reboxetine were tested alone (no nicotine), they decreased chamber activity and/or dipper entries. Nevertheless, all three drugs produced partial or complete blockade of the CS effects of nicotine at doses that produced no effect on dipper entries or chamber entries. This finding suggests that both neurotransmitters play a role in the CS effects of nicotine and that modifications in these systems by antidepressants may be clinically relevant

    Differential regulation of gene expression pathways with dexamethasone and ACTH after early life seizures.

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    Early-life seizures (ELS) are associated with persistent cognitive deficits such as ADHD and memory impairment. These co-morbidities have a dramatic negative impact on the quality of life of patients. Therapies that improve cognitive outcomes have enormous potential to improve patients\u27 quality of life. Our previous work in a rat flurothyl-induction model showed that administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) at time of seizure induction led to improved learning and memory in the animals despite no effect on seizure latency or duration. Administration of dexamethasone (Dex), a corticosteroid, did not have the same positive effect on learning and memory and has even been shown to exacerbate injury in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy. We hypothesized that ACTH exerted positive effects on cognitive outcomes through beneficial changes to gene expression and proposed that administration of ACTH at seizure induction would return gene-expression in the brain towards the normal pattern of expression in the Control animals whereas Dex would not. Twenty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into vehicle- Control, and ACTH-, Dex-, and vehicle- ELS. Rat pups were subjected to 60 flurothyl seizures from P5 to P14. After seizure induction, brains were removed and the hippocampus and PFC were dissected, RNA was extracted and sequenced, and differential expression analysis was performed using generalized estimating equations. Differential expression analysis showed that ACTH pushes gene expression in the brain back to a more normal state of expression through enrichment of pathways involved in supporting homeostatic balance and down-regulating pathways that might contribute to excitotoxic cell-damage post-ELS

    Spectral backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton cultures

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    The backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton, which are assumed to vary widely with differences in size, shape, morphology and internal structure, have been directly measured in the laboratory on a very limited basis. This work presents results from laboratory analysis of the backscattering properties of thirteen phytoplankton species from five major taxa. Optical measurements include portions of the volume scattering function (VSF) and the absorption and attenuation coefficients at nine wavelengths. The VSF was used to obtain the backscattering coefficient for each species, and we focus on intra- and interspecific variability in spectral backscattering in this work. Ancillary measurements included chlorophyll-a concentration, cell concentration, and cell size, shape and morphology via microscopy for each culture. We found that the spectral backscattering properties of phytoplankton deviate from theory at wavelengths where pigment absorption is significant. We were unable to detect an effect of cell size on the spectral shape of backscattering, but we did find a relationship between cell size and both the backscattering ratio and backscattering crosssection. While particulate backscattering at 555 nm was well correlated to chlorophyll-a concentration for any given species, the relationship was highly variable between species. Results from this work indicate that phytoplankton cells may backscatter light at significantly higher efficiencies than what is predicted by Mie theory, which has important implications for closing the underwater and remotely sensed light budget
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