729 research outputs found

### Mum. Dad. Do you need some help with that? Empowering older Australians in a digital era.

The change to a digital environment for Australian families is more than simply adopting internet connectivity or a mobile phone. Moving from an analog environment and into a digital sphere for many individuals is confronting: the transition requires digital media literacy, that is an understanding of devices, forms of connectivity, installation of devices and how best to use digital connectivity to connect with other family members. In this Australian study the interviewees revealed that tensions occur between middle and older adults as both generations try to understand the effect of the change to a digital environment on each other and navigate the best path that enables communication and connection between family members. This paper will primarily draw on the interviews held with middle adult John and his mother Vera

### Parity properties of Costas arrays defined via finite fields

A Costas array of order $n$ is an arrangement of dots and blanks into $n$ rows and $n$ columns, with exactly one dot in each row and each column, the arrangement satisfying certain specified conditions. A dot occurring in such an array is even/even if it occurs in the $i$-th row and $j$-th column, where $i$ and $j$ are both even integers, and there are similar definitions of odd/odd, even/odd and odd/even dots. Two types of Costas arrays, known as Golomb-Costas and Welch-Costas arrays, can be defined using finite fields. When $q$ is a power of an odd prime, we enumerate the number of even/even odd/odd, even/odd and odd/even dots in a Golomb-Costas array. We show that three of these numbers are equal and they differ by $\pm 1$ from the fourth. For a Welch-Costas array of order $p-1$, where $p$ is an odd prime, the four numbers above are all equal to $(p-1)/4$ when $p\equiv 1\pmod{4}$, but when $p\equiv 3\pmod{4}$, we show that the four numbers are defined in terms of the class number of the imaginary quadratic field $\mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{-p})$, and thus behave in a much less predictable manner.Comment: To appear in Advances in Mathematics of Communication

### Underdetermined Blind Source Separation in Echoic Environments Using DESPRIT

The DUET blind source separation algorithm can demix an arbitrary number of speech signals using M=2 anechoic mixtures of the signals. DUET however is limited in that it relies upon source signals which are mixed in an anechoic environment and which are sufficiently sparse such that it is assumed that only one source is active at a given time frequency point. The DUET-ESPRIT (DESPRIT) blind source separation algorithm extends DUET to situations where M&#x2265;2 sparsely echoic mixtures of an arbitrary number of sources overlap in time frequency. This paper outlines the development of the DESPRIT method and demonstrates its properties through various experiments conducted on synthetic and real world mixtures

### Canonical time-frequency, time-scale, and frequency-scale representations of time-varying channels

Mobile communication channels are often modeled as linear time-varying filters or, equivalently, as time-frequency integral operators with finite support in time and frequency. Such a characterization inherently assumes the signals are narrowband and may not be appropriate for wideband signals. In this paper time-scale characterizations are examined that are useful in wideband time-varying channels, for which a time-scale integral operator is physically justifiable. A review of these time-frequency and time-scale characterizations is presented. Both the time-frequency and time-scale integral operators have a two-dimensional discrete characterization which motivates the design of time-frequency or time-scale rake receivers. These receivers have taps for both time and frequency (or time and scale) shifts of the transmitted signal. A general theory of these characterizations which generates, as specific cases, the discrete time-frequency and time-scale models is presented here. The interpretation of these models, namely, that they can be seen to arise from processing assumptions on the transmit and receive waveforms is discussed. Out of this discussion a third model arises: a frequency-scale continuous channel model with an associated discrete frequency-scale characterization.Comment: To appear in Communications in Information and Systems - special issue in honor of Thomas Kailath's seventieth birthda

### The Synchronized Short-Time-Fourier-Transform: Properties and Definitions for Multichannel Source Separation.

This paper proposes the use of a synchronized linear transform, the synchronized short-time-Fourier-transform (sSTFT), for time-frequency analysis of anechoic mixtures. We address the short comings of the commonly used time-frequency linear transform in multichannel settings, namely the classical short-time-Fourier-transform (cSTFT). We propose a series of desirable properties for the linear transform used in a multichannel source separation scenario: stationary invertibility, relative delay, relative attenuation, and finally delay invariant relative windowed-disjoint orthogonality (DIRWDO). Multisensor source separation techniques which operate in the time-frequency domain, have an inherent error unless consideration is given to the multichannel properties proposed in this paper. The sSTFT preserves these relationships for multichannel data. The crucial innovation of the sSTFT is to locally synchronize the analysis to the observations as opposed to a global clock. Improvement in separation performance can be achieved because assumed properties of the time-frequency transform are satisfied when it is appropriately synchronized. Numerical experiments show the sSTFT improves instantaneous subsample relative parameter estimation in low noise conditions and achieves good synthesis

### Power-Weighted Divergences for Relative Attenuation and Delay Estimation

Power-weighted estimators have recently been proposed for relative attenuation and delay estimation in blind source separation. Their provenance lies in the observation that speech is approximately windowed-disjoint orthogonal (WDO) in the time-frequency (TF) domain; it has been reported that using WDO, derived from TF representations of speech, improves mixing parameter estimation. We show that power-weighted relative attenuation and delay estimators can be derived from a particular case of a weighted Bregman divergence. We then propose a wider class of estimators, which we tune to give better parameter estimates for speech
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