283 research outputs found

    VAS sounding data evaluation

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    The VAS soundings derived by NOAA personnel and NASA personnel and rawinsonde soundings are compared: (1) directly by plotting on Skew t-log p diagrams; (2) by pairing rawinsonde soundings with the closest satellite soundings and calculating the mean and standard deviations of differences between the two data sets; and (3) by constructing synoptic and subsynoptic scale analyses with rawinsonde and satellite data. Differences for various parameters are discussed

    Meteorological balloon Patent

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    Aerodynamically stable meteorological balloon using surface roughness effec

    The development of convective instability, wind shear, and vertical motion in relation to convection activity and synoptic systems in AVE 4

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    Data from the Fourth Atmospheric Variability Experiment were used to investigate conditions/factors responsible for the development (local time rate-of-change) of convective instability, wind shear, and vertical motion in areas with varying degrees of convective activity. AVE IV sounding data were taken at 3 or 6 h intervals during a 36 h period on 24-25 April 1975 over approximately the eastern half of the United States. An error analysis was performed for each variable studied

    Relationships between motion on isentropic surfaces from 3-H rawinsonde data and radar echoes

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    Vertical motion in insentropic surfaces obtained at 3-h intervals conducted on 11 and 12 May, 1974 is related to convection indicated by radar echoes. Temporal and spatial changes in vertical motion are shown and demonstrated to be associated with areas of convection. Large vertical motion was calculated, and it is shown that vertical motion changes as much as 20 cm s (-1) in a horizontal distance of 300 km. The rate of change of vertical motion is demonstrated to be as large a 8 cm s (-1)h(-1) from data taken at 3-h intervals, while data taken at 12-h intervals the same day displayed a maximum rate of change of 2 cm s(-1)n(-1). Radar observations confirmed that the intensity of convection varies as a result of the atmospheric variability as detected by 3-h data but is invisible in data taken at 12-h intervals

    Moisture processes accompanying convective activity

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    A moisture budget analysis was performed on data collected during the AVE 7 (May 2 to 3, 1978) and AVE-SESAME1 (April 10 to 11, 1979) experiments. Local rates-of-change of moisture were compared with average moisture divergence in the same time period. Results were presented as contoured plots in the horizontal and as vertical cross sections. These results were used to develop models of the distribution of moisture processes in the vicinity of convective areas in two layers representing lower and middle tropospheric conditions. Good correspondence was found between the residual term of the moisture budget and actual precipitation

    Gradients of meteorological parameters in convective and nonconvective areas

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    Horizontal gradients of geopotential height, temperature, and wind speed were computed at the 850-, 700-, 500-, and 200-mb levels. Mixing ratio gradients also were computed, but only for the 850-, 700-, and 500-mb levels. Rawinsonde data was provided at 3- to 6-h intervals. Cumulative frequency distributions and statistical parameters showed that the variability and magnitude of the gradients decreased as the gradients were computed over progressively longer distances. Most frequency distributions were positively skewed, and the standard deviations of the gradient distributions were roughly half as large as the means. An examination of the differences of gradients observed in convective and nonconvective areas was made after convective areas were determined objectively using Manually Digitized Radar data. The gradients of height, wind speed, and mixing ratio at 850 mb were larger in convective than nonconvective areas. No general relationship held for the meteorological variables at other levels. Intensive examination of the gradients observed near squall lines revealed typical gradient patterns and trends in the magnitudes of the gradients associated with convective systems

    Atmospheric structure and variability in areas of convective storms determined from 3-h rawinsonde data

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    The structure and variability of the atmosphere in areas of radar-observed convection were established by using 3-h rawinsonde and surface data from NASA's second Atmospheric Variability Experiment. Convective activity was shown to exist in areas where the low and middle troposphere is moist and the air is potentially and convectively unstable and has upward motion, in combination with positive moisture advection, at either the surface or within the boundary layer. The large variability of the parameters associated with convective storms over time intervals less than 12 h was also demonstrated so as to possibly produce a change in the probability of convective activity by a factor of 8 or more in 3 h. Between 30 and 60 percent of the total changes in parameters associated with convective activity over a 12-h period were shown to take place during a 3-h period. These large changes in parameters are related to subsynoptic-scale systems that often produce convective storms

    Comparisons between Nimbus 6 satellite and rawinsonde soundings for several geographical areas

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    Good agreement between satellite and weighted (linearly interpolated) rawinsonde temperature and temperature derived parameters was found in most instances with the poorest agreement either near the tropopause region or near the ground. However, satellite moisture data are highly questionable. The smallest discrepancy between satellite and weighted mean rawinsonde temperature and parameters derived from temperature was found over water and the largest discrepancy was found over mountains. Cumulative frequency distributions show that discrepancies between satellite and rawinsonde data can be represented by a normal distribution except for dew point temperature
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