275 research outputs found

    Tactile information improves visual object discrimination in kea, Nestor notabilis, and capuchin monkeys, Sapajus spp.

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    In comparative visual cognition research, the influence of information acquired by nonvisual senses has received little attention. Systematic studies focusing on how the integration of information from sight and touch can affect animal perception are sparse. Here, we investigated whether tactile input improves visual discrimination ability of a bird, the kea, and capuchin monkeys, two species with acute vision, and known for their tendency to handle objects. To this end, we assessed whether, at the attainment of a criterion, accuracy and/or learning speed in the visual modality were enhanced by haptic (i.e. active tactile) exploration of an object. Subjects were trained to select the positive stimulus between two cylinders of the same shape and size, but with different surface structures. In the Sight condition, one pair of cylinders was inserted into transparent Plexiglas tubes. This prevented animals from haptically perceiving the objects' surfaces. In the Sight and Touch condition, one pair of cylinders was not inserted into transparent Plexiglas tubes. This allowed the subjects to perceive the objects' surfaces both visually and haptically. We found that both kea and capuchins (1) showed comparable levels of accuracy at the attainment of the learning criterion in both conditions, but (2) required fewer trials to achieve the criterion in the Sight and Touch condition. Moreover, this study showed that both kea and capuchins can integrate information acquired by the visual and tactile modalities. To our knowledge, this represents the first evidence of visuotactile integration in a bird species. Overall, our findings demonstrate that the acquisition of tactile information while manipulating objects facilitates visual discrimination of objects in two phylogenetically distant species

    Resuspension, Redistribution, and Deposition of Oil-Residues to Offshore Depocenters After the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

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    The focus of this study was to determine the long-term fate of oil-residues from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill due to remobilization, transport, and re-distribution of oil residue contaminated sediments to down-slope depocenters following initial deposition on the seafloor. We characterized hydrocarbon residues, bulk sediment organic matter, ease of resuspension, sedimentology, and accumulation rates to define distribution patterns in a 14,300 km2 area southeast of the DwH wellhead (1,500 to 2,600 m water depth). Oil-residues from the DwH were detected at low concentrations in 62% of the studied sites at specific sediment layers, denoting episodic deposition of oil-residues during 2010–2014 and 2015–2018 periods. DwH oil residues exhibited a spatial distribution pattern that did not correspond with the distribution of the surface oil slick, subsurface plume or original seafloor spatial expression. Three different regions were apparent in the overall study area and distinguished by the episodic nature of sediment accumulation, the ease of sediment resuspension, the timing of oil-residue deposition, carbon content and isotopic composition and foram fracturing extent. These data indicate that resuspension and down-slope redistribution of oil-residues occurred in the years following the DwH event and must be considered in determining the fate of the spilled oil deposited on the seafloor

    Novice Counselors’ Conceptualizations and Experiences of Therapeutic Relationships

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    This qualitative study investigated three novice counselors’ experiences and characterizations of therapeutic relationships. Thematic analyses of interviews and diaries revealed six common themes: (a) the centrality of supervision and training experiences to navigating interpersonal experiences with clients; (b) anxiety about counselors’ roles in therapeutic relationships; (c) the perception of the therapeutic relationship as less directive than outside (lay) helping relationships; (d) experimentation with different interpersonal styles; (e)awareness of countertransference; and, (f) impact of therapeutic relationships on outside relationships. Findings expand upon the therapeutic relationship as a focal point for the training and supervision of novice counselors

    Molecular Markers of Biogenic and Oil-Derived Hydrocarbons in Deep-Sea Sediments Following the Deepwater Horizon Spill

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    Following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWHOS), the formation of an unexpected and extended sedimentation event of oil-associated marine snow (MOSSFA: Marine Oil Snow Sedimentation and Flocculent Accumulation) demonstrated the importance of biology on the fate of contaminants in the oceans. We used a wide range of compound-specific data (aliphatics, hopanes, steranes, triaromatic steroids, polycyclic aromatics) to chemically characterize the MOSSFA event containing abundant and multiple hydrocarbon sources (e.g., oil residues and phytoplankton). Sediment samples were collected in 2010–2011 (ERMA-NRDA programs: Environmental Response Management Application – Natural Resource Damage Assessment) and 2018 (REDIRECT project: Resuspension, Redistribution and Deposition of Deepwater Horizon recalcitrant hydrocarbons to offshore depocenter) in the northern Gulf of Mexico to assess the role of biogenic and chemical processes on the fate of oil residues in sediments. The chemical data revealed the deposition of the different hydrocarbon mixtures observed in the water column during the DWHOS (e.g., oil slicks, submerged-plumes), defining the chemical signature of MOSSFA relative to where it originated in the water column and its fate in deep-sea sediments. MOSSFA from surface waters covered 90% of the deep-sea area studied and deposited 32% of the total oil residues observed in deep-sea areas after the DWHOS while MOSSFA originated at depth from the submerged plumes covered only 9% of the deep-sea area studied and was responsible for 15% of the total deposition of oil residues. In contrast, MOSSFA originated at depth from the water column covered only 1% of the deep-sea area studied (mostly in close proximity of the DWH wellhead) but was responsible for 53% of the total deposition of oil residues observed after the spill in this area. This study describes, for the first time, a multi-chemical method for the identification of biogenic and oil-derived inputs to deep-sea sediments, critical for improving our understanding of carbon inputs and storage at depth in open ocean systems

    The Relationship of Upwelling to Mussel Production in the Rias on the Western Coast of Spain

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    We have calculated an upwelling index for each month over a 17-year period (1969-1985) for a point off the western coast of Spain. We interpret April through September values of the index to indicate the flux of nitrate-rich water in the Spanish Rias. The index representing the 6-month upwelling series has been correlated with an index representing the conditions of mussels grown during that season on rafts in Ria de Arosa. Two seasons represent extreme upwelling conditions over the 17-year sampling period: 1977 when the upwelling index was the highest, and 1983 when it was the lowest. A comparison of the condition of mussels during these years showed that meat content was double in 1977. We suggest, by this study, that long range forecasts of synoptic scale weather patterns could be used to predict the potential nutritional value of mussels harvested in the rias of Spain

    Assessment of Turbulent Shock-Boundary Layer Interaction Computations Using the OVERFLOW Code

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    The performance of two popular turbulence models, the Spalart-Allmaras model and Menter s SST model, and one relatively new model, Olsen & Coakley s Lag model, are evaluated using the OVERFLOWcode. Turbulent shock-boundary layer interaction predictions are evaluated with three different experimental datasets: a series of 2D compression ramps at Mach 2.87, a series of 2D compression ramps at Mach 2.94, and an axisymmetric coneflare at Mach 11. The experimental datasets include flows with no separation, moderate separation, and significant separation, and use several different experimental measurement techniques (including laser doppler velocimetry (LDV), pitot-probe measurement, inclined hot-wire probe measurement, preston tube skin friction measurement, and surface pressure measurement). Additionally, the OVERFLOW solutions are compared to the solutions of a second CFD code, DPLR. The predictions for weak shock-boundary layer interactions are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data. For strong shock-boundary layer interactions, all of the turbulence models overpredict the separation size and fail to predict the correct skin friction recovery distribution. In most cases, surface pressure predictions show too much upstream influence, however including the tunnel side-wall boundary layers in the computation improves the separation predictions

    Socially-mediated arousal and contagion within domestic chick broods

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    Emotional contagion – an underpinning valenced feature of empathy – is made up of simpler, potentially dissociable social processes which can include socially-mediated arousal and behavioural/physiological contagion. Previous studies of emotional contagion have often conflated these processes rather than examining their independent contribution to empathic response. We measured socially-mediated arousal and contagion in 9-week old domestic chicks (n = 19 broods), who were unrelated but raised together from hatching. Pairs of observer chicks were exposed to two conditions in a counterbalanced order: air puff to conspecifics (AP) (during which an air puff was applied to three conspecifics at 30 s intervals) and control with noise of air puff (C) (during which the air puff was directed away from the apparatus at 30 s intervals). Behaviour and surface eye temperature of subjects and observers were measured throughout a 10-min pre-treatment and 10-min treatment period. Subjects and observers responded to AP with increased freezing, and reduced preening and ground pecking. Subjects and observers also showed reduced surface eye temperature - indicative of stress-induced hyperthermia. Subject-Observer behaviour was highly correlated within broods during both C and AP conditions, but with higher overall synchrony during AP. We demonstrate the co-occurrence of socially-mediated behavioural and physiological arousal and contagion; component features of emotional contagion

    Complexity of Discrete Energy Minimization Problems

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    Discrete energy minimization is widely-used in computer vision and machine learning for problems such as MAP inference in graphical models. The problem, in general, is notoriously intractable, and finding the global optimal solution is known to be NP-hard. However, is it possible to approximate this problem with a reasonable ratio bound on the solution quality in polynomial time? We show in this paper that the answer is no. Specifically, we show that general energy minimization, even in the 2-label pairwise case, and planar energy minimization with three or more labels are exp-APX-complete. This finding rules out the existence of any approximation algorithm with a sub-exponential approximation ratio in the input size for these two problems, including constant factor approximations. Moreover, we collect and review the computational complexity of several subclass problems and arrange them on a complexity scale consisting of three major complexity classes -- PO, APX, and exp-APX, corresponding to problems that are solvable, approximable, and inapproximable in polynomial time. Problems in the first two complexity classes can serve as alternative tractable formulations to the inapproximable ones. This paper can help vision researchers to select an appropriate model for an application or guide them in designing new algorithms.Comment: ECCV'16 accepte
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