158 research outputs found

    Fuel Efficient Computation in Passive Self-Assembly

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    In this paper we show that passive self-assembly in the context of the tile self-assembly model is capable of performing fuel efficient, universal computation. The tile self-assembly model is a premiere model of self-assembly in which particles are modeled by four-sided squares with glue types assigned to each tile edge. The assembly process is driven by positive and negative force interactions between glue types, allowing for tile assemblies floating in the plane to combine and break apart over time. We refer to this type of assembly model as passive in that the constituent parts remain unchanged throughout the assembly process regardless of their interactions. A computationally universal system is said to be fuel efficient if the number of tiles used up per computation step is bounded by a constant. Work within this model has shown how fuel guzzling tile systems can perform universal computation with only positive strength glue interactions. Recent work has introduced space-efficient, fuel-guzzling universal computation with the addition of negative glue interactions and the use of a powerful non-diagonal class of glue interactions. Other recent work has shown how to achieve fuel efficient computation within active tile self-assembly. In this paper we utilize negative interactions in the tile self-assembly model to achieve the first computationally universal passive tile self-assembly system that is both space and fuel-efficient. In addition, we achieve this result using a limited diagonal class of glue interactions

    Temperature 1 Self-Assembly: Deterministic Assembly in 3D and Probabilistic Assembly in 2D

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    We investigate the power of the Wang tile self-assembly model at temperature 1, a threshold value that permits attachment between any two tiles that share even a single bond. When restricted to deterministic assembly in the plane, no temperature 1 assembly system has been shown to build a shape with a tile complexity smaller than the diameter of the shape. In contrast, we show that temperature 1 self-assembly in 3 dimensions, even when growth is restricted to at most 1 step into the third dimension, is capable of simulating a large class of temperature 2 systems, in turn permitting the simulation of arbitrary Turing machines and the assembly of n×nn\times n squares in near optimal O(logn)O(\log n) tile complexity. Further, we consider temperature 1 probabilistic assembly in 2D, and show that with a logarithmic scale up of tile complexity and shape scale, the same general class of temperature τ=2\tau=2 systems can be simulated with high probability, yielding Turing machine simulation and O(log2n)O(\log^2 n) assembly of n×nn\times n squares with high probability. Our results show a sharp contrast in achievable tile complexity at temperature 1 if either growth into the third dimension or a small probability of error are permitted. Motivated by applications in nanotechnology and molecular computing, and the plausibility of implementing 3 dimensional self-assembly systems, our techniques may provide the needed power of temperature 2 systems, while at the same time avoiding the experimental challenges faced by those systems

    Size-Dependent Tile Self-Assembly: Constant-Height Rectangles and Stability

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    We introduce a new model of algorithmic tile self-assembly called size-dependent assembly. In previous models, supertiles are stable when the total strength of the bonds between any two halves exceeds some constant temperature. In this model, this constant temperature requirement is replaced by an nondecreasing temperature function τ:NN\tau : \mathbb{N} \rightarrow \mathbb{N} that depends on the size of the smaller of the two halves. This generalization allows supertiles to become unstable and break apart, and captures the increased forces that large structures may place on the bonds holding them together. We demonstrate the power of this model in two ways. First, we give fixed tile sets that assemble constant-height rectangles and squares of arbitrary input size given an appropriate temperature function. Second, we prove that deciding whether a supertile is stable is coNP-complete. Both results contrast with known results for fixed temperature.Comment: In proceedings of ISAAC 201

    Self-Assembly of Arbitrary Shapes Using RNAse Enzymes: Meeting the Kolmogorov Bound with Small Scale Factor (extended abstract)

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    We consider a model of algorithmic self-assembly of geometric shapes out of square Wang tiles studied in SODA 2010, in which there are two types of tiles (e.g., constructed out of DNA and RNA material) and one operation that destroys all tiles of a particular type (e.g., an RNAse enzyme destroys all RNA tiles). We show that a single use of this destruction operation enables much more efficient construction of arbitrary shapes. In particular, an arbitrary shape can be constructed using an asymptotically optimal number of distinct tile types (related to the shape's Kolmogorov complexity), after scaling the shape by only a logarithmic factor. By contrast, without the destruction operation, the best such result has a scale factor at least linear in the size of the shape, and is connected only by a spanning tree of the scaled tiles. We also characterize a large collection of shapes that can be constructed efficiently without any scaling

    Optimal Staged Self-Assembly of General Shapes

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    We analyze the number of tile types tt, bins bb, and stages necessary to assemble n×nn \times n squares and scaled shapes in the staged tile assembly model. For n×nn \times n squares, we prove O(logntbtlogtb2+loglogblogt)\mathcal{O}(\frac{\log{n} - tb - t\log t}{b^2} + \frac{\log \log b}{\log t}) stages suffice and Ω(logntbtlogtb2)\Omega(\frac{\log{n} - tb - t\log t}{b^2}) are necessary for almost all nn. For shapes SS with Kolmogorov complexity K(S)K(S), we prove O(K(S)tbtlogtb2+loglogblogt)\mathcal{O}(\frac{K(S) - tb - t\log t}{b^2} + \frac{\log \log b}{\log t}) stages suffice and Ω(K(S)tbtlogtb2)\Omega(\frac{K(S) - tb - t\log t}{b^2}) are necessary to assemble a scaled version of SS, for almost all SS. We obtain similarly tight bounds when the more powerful flexible glues are permitted.Comment: Abstract version appeared in ESA 201