5,466 research outputs found

### Source Reading for Contentious Gatherings in Nineteenth-Century British Newspapers

http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/50960/1/186.pd

### How Damage Diversification Can Reduce Systemic Risk

We consider the problem of risk diversification in complex networks. Nodes
represent e.g. financial actors, whereas weighted links represent e.g.
financial obligations (credits/debts). Each node has a risk to fail because of
losses resulting from defaulting neighbors, which may lead to large failure
cascades. Classical risk diversification strategies usually neglect network
effects and therefore suggest that risk can be reduced if possible losses
(i.e., exposures) are split among many neighbors (exposure diversification,
ED). But from a complex networks perspective diversification implies higher
connectivity of the system as a whole which can also lead to increasing failure
risk of a node. To cope with this, we propose a different strategy (damage
diversification, DD), i.e. the diversification of losses that are imposed on
neighboring nodes as opposed to losses incurred by the node itself. Here, we
quantify the potential of DD to reduce systemic risk in comparison to ED. For
this, we develop a branching process approximation that we generalize to
weighted networks with (almost) arbitrary degree and weight distributions. This
allows us to identify systemically relevant nodes in a network even if their
directed weights differ strongly. On the macro level, we provide an analytical
expression for the average cascade size, to quantify systemic risk.
Furthermore, on the meso level we calculate failure probabilities of nodes
conditional on their system relevance

### Time dependence of the survival probability of an opinion in a closed community

The time dependence of the survival probability of an opinion in a closed
community has been investigated in accordance with social temperature by using
the Kawasaki-exchange dynamics based on previous study in Ref. [1]. It is shown
that the survival probability of opinion decays with stretched exponential law
consistent with previous static model. However, the crossover regime in the
decay of the survival probability has been observed in this dynamic model
unlike previous model. The decay characteristics of both two regimes obey to
stretched exponential.Comment: Revised version of the paper (9 page, 5 Figures). Submitted to Int.
J. Mod. Phys.

### Evoking the Ineffable: The Phenomenology of Extreme Sports

We are witnessing an unprecedented interest in and engagement with extreme sport activities. Extreme sports are unique in that they involve physical prowess as well as a particular attitude towards the world and the self. We have scant understanding of the experience of participants who engage in extreme activities such as BASE jumping, big wave surfing, extreme skiing, waterfall kayaking, extreme mountaineering, and solo rope free climbing.
The current study investigates the experience of people who engage in extreme sports utilizing a phenomenological approach. The study draws upon interviews with 15 extreme sports participants across three continents to explicate three unique themes: extreme sports as invigorating experience, inadequacy of words, and participants’ experience of transcendence. The findings provide a valuable insight into the experiences of the participants and contribute to our understanding of human volition and the range of human experiences

### Non-equilibrium dynamics of an active colloidal "chucker"

We report Monte Carlo simulations of the dynamics of a "chucker": a colloidal
particle which emits smaller solute particles from its surface, isotropically
and at a constant rate k_c. We find that the diffusion constant of the chucker
increases for small k_c, as recently predicted theoretically. At large k_c the
chucker diffuses more slowly due to crowding effects. We compare our simulation
results to those of a "point particle" Langevin dynamics scheme in which the
solute concentration field is calculated analytically, and in which
hydrodynamic effects can be included albeit in an approximate way. By
simulating the dragging of a chucker, we obtain an estimate of its apparent
mobility coefficient which violates the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. We
also characterise the probability density profile for a chucker which sediments
onto a surface which either repels or absorbs the solute particles, and find
that the steady state distributions are very different in the two cases. Our
simulations are inspired by the biological example of
exopolysaccharide-producing bacteria, as well as by recent experimental,
simulation and theoretical work on phoretic colloidal "swimmers".Comment: re-submission after referee's comment

### Critical regime of two dimensional Ando model: relation between critical conductance and fractal dimension of electronic eigenstates

The critical two-terminal conductance $g_c$ and the spatial fluctuations of
critical eigenstates are investigated for a disordered two dimensional model of
non-interacting electrons subject to spin-orbit scattering (Ando model). For
square samples, we verify numerically the relation $\sigma_c=1/[2\pi(2-D(1))]
e^2/h$ between critical conductivity $\sigma_c=g_c=(1.42\pm 0.005) e^2/h$ and
the fractal information dimension of the electron wave function, $D(1)=1.889\pm
0.001$. Through a detailed numerical scaling analysis of the two-terminal
conductance we also estimate the critical exponent $\nu=2.80\pm 0.04$ that
governs the quantum phase transition.Comment: IOP Latex, 7 figure

### Extreme sports are good for your health: a phenomenological understanding of fear and anxiety in extreme sport.

Extreme sports are traditionally explored from a risk-taking perspective which often assumes that participants do not experience fear. In this article we explore participants' experience of fear associated with participation in extreme sports. An interpretive phenomenological method was used with 15 participants. Four themes emerged: experience of fear, relationship to fear, management of fear, and fear and self-transformation. Participants' experience of extreme sports was revealed in terms of intense fear but this fear was integrated and experienced as a potentially meaningful and constructive event in their lives. The findings have implications for understanding fear as a potentially transformative process

### Statistical mechanics of the international trade network

Analyzing real data on international trade covering the time interval
1950-2000, we show that in each year over the analyzed period the network is a
typical representative of the ensemble of maximally random weighted networks,
whose directed connections (bilateral trade volumes) are only characterized by
the product of the trading countries' GDPs. It means that time evolution of
this network may be considered as a continuous sequence of equilibrium states,
i.e. quasi-static process. This, in turn, allows one to apply the linear
response theory to make (and also verify) simple predictions about the network.
In particular, we show that bilateral trade fulfills fluctuation-response
theorem, which states that the average relative change in import (export)
between two countries is a sum of relative changes in their GDPs. Yearly
changes in trade volumes prove that the theorem is valid.Comment: 6 pages, 2 figure

### Universal Conductance and Conductivity at Critical Points in Integer Quantum Hall Systems

The sample averaged longitudinal two-terminal conductance and the respective
Kubo-conductivity are calculated at quantum critical points in the integer
quantum Hall regime. In the limit of large system size, both transport
quantities are found to be the same within numerical uncertainty in the lowest
Landau band, $0.60\pm 0.02 e^2/h$ and $0.58\pm 0.03 e^2/h$, respectively. In
the 2nd lowest Landau band, a critical conductance $0.61\pm 0.03 e^2/h$ is
obtained which indeed supports the notion of universality. However, these
numbers are significantly at variance with the hitherto commonly believed value
$1/2 e^2/h$. We argue that this difference is due to the multifractal structure
of critical wavefunctions, a property that should generically show up in the
conductance at quantum critical points.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figure

### Contentious Gatherings in Great Britain, 1828-1833: Provisional Plans for Enumeration and Coding

http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/50925/1/150.pd

- …