204 research outputs found

### Using the Incompressibility Method to obtain Local Lemma results for Ramsey-type Problems

We reveal a connection between the incompressibility method and the Lovasz
local lemma in the context of Ramsey theory. We obtain bounds by repeatedly
encoding objects of interest and thereby compressing strings. The method is
demonstrated on the example of van der Waerden numbers. It applies to lower
bounds of Ramsey numbers, large transitive subtournaments and other Ramsey
phenomena as well.Comment: 8 pages, 1 figur

### Towards an Isomorphism Dichotomy for Hereditary Graph Classes

In this paper we resolve the complexity of the isomorphism problem on all but
finitely many of the graph classes characterized by two forbidden induced
subgraphs. To this end we develop new techniques applicable for the structural
and algorithmic analysis of graphs. First, we develop a methodology to show
isomorphism completeness of the isomorphism problem on graph classes by
providing a general framework unifying various reduction techniques. Second, we
generalize the concept of the modular decomposition to colored graphs, allowing
for non-standard decompositions. We show that, given a suitable decomposition
functor, the graph isomorphism problem reduces to checking isomorphism of
colored prime graphs. Third, we extend the techniques of bounded color valence
and hypergraph isomorphism on hypergraphs of bounded color size as follows. We
say a colored graph has generalized color valence at most k if, after removing
all vertices in color classes of size at most k, for each color class C every
vertex has at most k neighbors in C or at most k non-neighbors in C. We show
that isomorphism of graphs of bounded generalized color valence can be solved
in polynomial time.Comment: 37 pages, 4 figure

### Computing with Tangles

Tangles of graphs have been introduced by Robertson and Seymour in the
context of their graph minor theory. Tangles may be viewed as describing
"k-connected components" of a graph (though in a twisted way). They play an
important role in graph minor theory. An interesting aspect of tangles is that
they cannot only be defined for graphs, but more generally for arbitrary
connectivity functions (that is, integer-valued submodular and symmetric set
functions).
However, tangles are difficult to deal with algorithmically. To start with,
it is unclear how to represent them, because they are families of separations
and as such may be exponentially large. Our first contribution is a data
structure for representing and accessing all tangles of a graph up to some
fixed order.
Using this data structure, we can prove an algorithmic version of a very
general structure theorem due to Carmesin, Diestel, Harman and Hundertmark (for
graphs) and Hundertmark (for arbitrary connectivity functions) that yields a
canonical tree decomposition whose parts correspond to the maximal tangles.
(This may be viewed as a generalisation of the decomposition of a graph into
its 3-connected components.

### Canonizing Graphs of Bounded Tree Width in Logspace

Graph canonization is the problem of computing a unique representative, a
canon, from the isomorphism class of a given graph. This implies that two
graphs are isomorphic exactly if their canons are equal. We show that graphs of
bounded tree width can be canonized by logarithmic-space (logspace) algorithms.
This implies that the isomorphism problem for graphs of bounded tree width can
be decided in logspace. In the light of isomorphism for trees being hard for
the complexity class logspace, this makes the ubiquitous class of graphs of
bounded tree width one of the few classes of graphs for which the complexity of
the isomorphism problem has been exactly determined.Comment: 26 page

### Switching Reconstruction of Digraphs

Switching about a vertex in a digraph means to reverse the direction of every
edge incident with that vertex. Bondy and Mercier introduced the problem of
whether a digraph can be reconstructed up to isomorphism from the multiset of
isomorphism types of digraphs obtained by switching about each vertex. Since
the largest known non-reconstructible oriented graphs have 8 vertices, it is
natural to ask whether there are any larger non-reconstructible graphs. In this
paper we continue the investigation of this question. We find that there are
exactly 44 non-reconstructible oriented graphs whose underlying undirected
graphs have maximum degree at most 2. We also determine the full set of
switching-stable oriented graphs, which are those graphs for which all
switchings return a digraph isomorphic to the original

### The Weisfeiler-Leman Dimension of Planar Graphs is at most 3

We prove that the Weisfeiler-Leman (WL) dimension of the class of all finite
planar graphs is at most 3. In particular, every finite planar graph is
definable in first-order logic with counting using at most 4 variables. The
previously best known upper bounds for the dimension and number of variables
were 14 and 15, respectively.
First we show that, for dimension 3 and higher, the WL-algorithm correctly
tests isomorphism of graphs in a minor-closed class whenever it determines the
orbits of the automorphism group of any arc-colored 3-connected graph belonging
to this class.
Then we prove that, apart from several exceptional graphs (which have
WL-dimension at most 2), the individualization of two correctly chosen vertices
of a colored 3-connected planar graph followed by the 1-dimensional
WL-algorithm produces the discrete vertex partition. This implies that the
3-dimensional WL-algorithm determines the orbits of a colored 3-connected
planar graph.
As a byproduct of the proof, we get a classification of the 3-connected
planar graphs with fixing number 3.Comment: 34 pages, 3 figures, extended version of LICS 2017 pape

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