48 research outputs found

    Direct Geometric Probe of Singularities in Band Structure

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    The band structure of a crystal may have points where two or more bands are degenerate in energy and where the geometry of the Bloch state manifold is singular, with consequences for material and transport properties. Ultracold atoms in optical lattices have been used to characterize such points only indirectly, e.g., by detection of an Abelian Berry phase, and only at singularities with linear dispersion (Dirac points). Here, we probe band-structure singularities through the non-Abelian transformation produced by transport directly through the singular points. We prepare atoms in one Bloch band, accelerate them along a quasi-momentum trajectory that enters, turns, and then exits the singularities at linear and quadratic touching points of a honeycomb lattice. Measurements of the band populations after transport identify the winding numbers of these singularities to be 1 and 2, respectively. Our work opens the study of quadratic band touching points in ultracold-atom quantum simulators, and also provides a novel method for probing other band geometry singularities

    DNMT and HDAC inhibition induces immunogenic neoantigens from human endogenous retroviral element-derived transcripts.

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    Immunotherapies targeting cancer-specific neoantigens have revolutionized the treatment of cancer patients. Recent evidence suggests that epigenetic therapies synergize with immunotherapies, mediated by the de-repression of endogenous retroviral element (ERV)-encoded promoters, and the initiation of transcription. Here, we use deep RNA sequencing from cancer cell lines treated with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor (DNMTi) and/or Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), to assemble a de novo transcriptome and identify several thousand ERV-derived, treatment-induced novel polyadenylated transcripts (TINPATs). Using immunopeptidomics, we demonstrate the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) presentation of 45 spectra-validated treatment-induced neopeptides (t-neopeptides) arising from TINPATs. We illustrate the potential of the identified t-neopeptides to elicit a T-cell response to effectively target cancer cells. We further verify the presence of t-neopeptides in AML patient samples after in vivo treatment with the DNMT inhibitor Decitabine. Our findings highlight the potential of ERV-derived neoantigens in epigenetic and immune therapies

    Extra-Thymic Physiological T Lineage Progenitor Activity Is Exclusively Confined to Cells Expressing either CD127, CD90, or High Levels of CD117

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    T cell development depends on continuous recruitment of progenitors from bone marrow (BM) to the thymus via peripheral blood. However, both phenotype and functional characteristics of physiological T cell precursors remain ill-defined. Here, we characterized a putative CD135+CD27+ T cell progenitor population, which lacked expression of CD127, CD90, and high levels of CD117 and was therefore termed triple negative precursor (TNP). TNPs were present in both BM and blood and displayed robust T lineage potential, but virtually no myeloid or B lineage potential, in vitro. However, TNPs did not efficiently generate T lineage progeny after intravenous or intrathymic transfer, suggesting that a physiological thymic microenvironment does not optimally support T cell differentiation from TNPs. Thus, we propose that physiological T cell precursors are confined to populations expressing either CD127, CD90, or high levels of CD117 in addition to CD135 and CD27 and that TNPs may have other physiological functions

    Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality

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    Measurement of the Inclusive and Differential Higgs Boson Production Cross Sections in the Decay Mode to a Pair of τ Leptons in pp Collisions at sqrt[s]=13  TeV

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    Measurements of the inclusive and differential fiducial cross sections of the Higgs boson are presented, using the τ lepton decay channel. The differential cross sections are measured as functions of the Higgs boson transverse momentum, jet multiplicity, and transverse momentum of the leading jet in the event, if any. The analysis is performed using proton-proton collision data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC at a center-of-mass energy of 13  TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 138  fb^{-1}. These are the first differential measurements of the Higgs boson cross section in the final state of two τ leptons. In final states with a large jet multiplicity or with a Lorentz-boosted Higgs boson, these measurements constitute a significant improvement over measurements performed in other final states.ISSN:0031-9007ISSN:1079-711

    A New View on Foreign Language Learning - 1: 10 Factors that Make Learnerss Efforts to Bear Little Fruit

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    The evolution of eusociality

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